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  1. Research on the effect of acupuncture has been limited. Whether the effect of acupuncture is equivalent to placebo has been the focus of debate in this field. This study will explore the specific and non-speci...

    Authors: Na Zhang, Jin-Ling Li, Chao-Qun Yan, Xu Wang, Lu-Lu Lin, Jian-Feng Tu, You-Sheng Qi, Jun-Hong Liu, Cun-Zhi Liu and Li-Qiong Wang

    Citation: Trials 2020 21:566

    Content type: Study protocol

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  2. Several strategies are recommended to alleviate clinical symptoms of ulcerative colitis (UC). Soy milk may affect UC through its anti-inflammatory properties. However, no study has examined the effects of soy ...

    Authors: Omid Sadeghi, Alireza Milajerdi, Seyed Davar Siadat, Seyed Ali Keshavarz, Ali Reza Sima, Homayoon Vahedi, Peyman Adibi and Ahmad Esmaillzadeh

    Citation: Trials 2020 21:565

    Content type: Study protocol

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  3. Prospective research in the field of cochlear implants is hampered by methodological issues and small sample sizes. The ELEPHANT study presents an alternative clinical trial design with a daily randomized appr...

    Authors: L. J. G. Lambriks, M. van Hoof, J. A. Debruyne, M. Janssen, J. Chalupper, K. A. van der Heijden, J. R. Hof, C. A. Hellingman, E. L. J. George and E. M. J. Devocht

    Citation: Trials 2020 21:564

    Content type: Study protocol

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  4. Acne vulgaris (AV) is a common chronic dermatologic disease that tends to impair the appearance and quality of life (QoL) of patients. Although several trials have indicated the effectiveness of acupuncture fo...

    Authors: Ruimin Jiao, Man Huang, Weina Zhang and Zhishun Liu

    Citation: Trials 2020 21:563

    Content type: Study protocol

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  5. In Germany, evidence-based outpatient smoking cessation therapies are widely available. Long-term abstinence rates, however, are limited. Studies suggest that short-term residential therapy enables a higher le...

    Authors: Jonas Dickreuter, Claudia Schmoor, Jürgen Bengel, Andreas Jähne and Jens A. Leifert

    Citation: Trials 2020 21:562

    Content type: Study protocol

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  6. An amendment to this paper has been published and can be accessed via the original article.

    Authors: Roman Trepp, Raphaela Muri, Stephanie Abgottspon, Lenka Bosanska, Michel Hochuli, Johannes Slotboom, Christian Rummel, Roland Kreis and Regula Everts

    Citation: Trials 2020 21:561

    Content type: Correction

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    The original article was published in Trials 2020 21:178

  7. Knee osteoarthritis (KOA) seriously reduces quality of life and is a major threat to the health of the middle-aged and elderly. This study aimed to assess the efficacy of Miao crossbow needle therapy vs. acupu...

    Authors: Jing Fu, Hong-Cai Shang, Li-Ying Wang, Chen Zhao, Xiao-Fang Yang, Wei-Wei Guo, Chun-Xia Lu, Jin Cui and Yan-Ping Wang

    Citation: Trials 2020 21:560

    Content type: Research

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  8. Endocrown restoration is widely used to restore endodontically treated teeth. However, the clinical effects of different computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) materials for endocrown res...

    Authors: Jilei Wang, Zhiting Ling, Ziting Zheng, Chunqing Zheng, Yawen Gai, Yuting Zeng, Xiaoxia Zhu, Liya Chen, Buling Wu and Wenjuan Yan

    Citation: Trials 2020 21:559

    Content type: Study protocol

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  9. Hypertension is a major pathogenic factor of cardiovascular diseases. Insufficient blood pressure control rate and sub-optimal medication adherence remain challenges for effective management of hypertension. T...

    Authors: Zhong-Xue Tian, Cun-Zhi Liu, You-Sheng Qi, Jian-Feng Tu, Ying Lin, Yu Wang, Jing-Wen Yang, Guang-Xia Shi, Jun-Hong Liu and Li-Qiong Wang

    Citation: Trials 2020 21:558

    Content type: Study protocol

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  10. Resistance exercise is known to be effective in reducing glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) in people with type 2 diabetes. However, studies, so far, have employed supervised resistance exercise in a laboratory or g...

    Authors: Ebaa Al Ozairi, Dalal Alsaeed, Dennis Taliping, Mohamad Jalali, Abeer El Samad, Anant Mashankar, Etab Taghadom, Nicola Guess, Jason M. R. Gill, Naveed Sattar, Cindy Gray, Paul Welsh and Stuart R. Gray

    Citation: Trials 2020 21:557

    Content type: Study protocol

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    The Correction to this article has been published in Trials 2020 21:650

  11. An amendment to this paper has been published and can be accessed via the original article.

    Authors: Bastiaan Maes, Cedric Bosteels, Elisabeth De Leeuw, Jozefien Declercq, Karel Van Damme, Anja Delporte, Bénédicte Demeyere, Stéfanie Vermeersch, Marnik Vuylsteke, Joren Willaert, Laura Bollé, Yuri Vanbiervliet, Jana Decuypere, Frederick Libeer, Stefaan Vandecasteele, Isabelle Peene…

    Citation: Trials 2020 21:556

    Content type: Correction

    Published on:

    The original article was published in Trials 2020 21:468

  12. An amendment to this paper has been published and can be accessed via the original article.

    Authors: Thijs ten Doesschate, Simone J. C. F. M. Moorlag, Thomas W. van der Vaart, Esther Taks, Priya Debisarun, Jaap ten Oever, Chantal P. Bleeker-Rovers, Patricia Bruijning Verhagen, Arief Lalmohamed, Rob ter Heine, Reinout van Crevel, Janneke van de Wijgert, Axel B. Janssen, Marc J. Bonten, Cornelis H. van Werkhoven and Mihai G. Netea

    Citation: Trials 2020 21:555

    Content type: Correction

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    The original article was published in Trials 2020 21:481

  13. An amendment to this paper has been published and can be accessed via the original article.

    Authors: Cedric Bosteels, Bastiaan Maes, Karel Van Damme, Elisabeth De Leeuw, Jozefien Declercq, Anja Delporte, Bénédicte Demeyere, Stéfanie Vermeersch, Marnik Vuylsteke, Joren Willaert, Laura Bollé, Yuri Vanbiervliet, Jana Decuypere, Frederick Libeer, Stefaan Vandecasteele, Isabelle Peene…

    Citation: Trials 2020 21:554

    Content type: Correction

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    The original article was published in Trials 2020 21:491

  14. Suicide constitutes a cause of death which could be prevented by e-health programs accessible to the general population. Effective promotion has the potential to maximize the uptake of such programs. However, ...

    Authors: Coralie Gandré, Anaïs Le Jeannic, Marie-Amélie Vinet, Kathleen Turmaine, Philippe Courtet, Jean-Luc Roelandt, Guillaume Vaiva, Bruno Giraudeau, Corinne Alberti and Karine Chevreul

    Citation: Trials 2020 21:553

    Content type: Study protocol

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  15. Traditional randomised controlled trials remain the gold standard for improving clinical care but they do have their limitations, including their associated high costs, high failure rate and limited external v...

    Authors: Bill Karanatsios, Khic-Houy Prang, Ebony Verbunt, Justin M. Yeung, Margaret Kelaher and Peter Gibbs

    Citation: Trials 2020 21:552

    Content type: Review

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  16. Pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP) is a common acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS)-related opportunistic infection. Recent reports estimate that more than 400,000 patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)...

    Authors: Yuanyuan Qin, Yanqiu Lu, Yihong Zhou, Vijay Harypursat, Feng Sun, Sen Yang, Shengquan Tang, Yao Li, Xiaoqing He, Yanming Zeng and Yaokai Chen

    Citation: Trials 2020 21:551

    Content type: Study protocol

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  17. Approximately 15% of couples in the reproductive age are affected by infertility. Women with diminished ovarian reserves (DOR) or with a poor ovarian response (POR) are required to undergo in vitro fertilizati...

    Authors: Jingyan Song, Ting Ma, Yanlin Liang, Xianling Cao and Zhengao Sun

    Citation: Trials 2020 21:550

    Content type: Study protocol

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  18. There is little information about Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) management for critically ill patients. Most of these patients develop acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) due to excessive inflamma...

    Authors: Nafiseh Abdolahi, Effat Kaheh, Roghieh Golsha, Behnaz Khodabakhshi, Alireza Norouzi, Mahmoud Khandashpoor, Sima Besharat, Samane Tavassoli, Somayeh Livani, Sadegh Ali Azimi, Mohammad Hadi Gharib, Babak Peivandi, Abdolreza Fazel, Hesamaddin Shirzad-Aski and Gholamreza Roshandel

    Citation: Trials 2020 21:549

    Content type: Letter

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  19. Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) may trigger severe pneumonia in coronavirus disease of 2019 (COVID-19) patients through release of damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) and ...

    Authors: J. P. Desilles, C. Gregoire, C. Le Cossec, J. Lambert, O. Mophawe, M. R. Losser, F. Lambiotte, S. Le Tacon, M. Cantier, N. Engrand, P. Trouiller and J. Pottecher

    Citation: Trials 2020 21:548

    Content type: Letter

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  20. Postinfectious cough usually develops and persists following respiratory tract infection. The protracted cough is embarrassing and troublesome and significantly impairs daily life. However, the optimal treatme...

    Authors: Huanan Wang, Bin She, Bing Mao and Hongli Jiang

    Citation: Trials 2020 21:547

    Content type: Study protocol

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  21. The direct superior approach (DSA) is a minimally invasive modification of the posterior approach (PA) that preserves the iliotibial band and short external rotators except for the piriformis or conjoint tendo...

    Authors: Babar Kayani, Sujith Konan, Jenni Tahmassebi, Atif Ayuob and Fares S. Haddad

    Citation: Trials 2020 21:546

    Content type: Study protocol

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  22. Health disorders, due to the use of drugs with fiscalized substances, including controlled substances, have become a common problem in Colombia. Multiple reasons can help explain this problem, including self-m...

    Authors: Mauricio Ceballos, Andrea Salazar-Ospina, Daniel Sabater-Hernández and Pedro Amariles

    Citation: Trials 2020 21:545

    Content type: Study protocol

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  23. Phase I - To determine the optimal dose of each candidate (or combination of candidates) entered into the platform.

    Authors: Gareth Griffiths, Richard Fitzgerald, Thomas Jaki, Andrea Corkhill, Ellice Marwood, Helen Reynolds, Louise Stanton, Sean Ewings, Susannah Condie, Emma Wrixon, Andrea Norton, Mike Radford, Sara Yeats, Jane Robertson, Rachel Darby-Dowman, Lauren Walker…

    Citation: Trials 2020 21:544

    Content type: Letter

    Published on:

  24. Trial oversight is important for trial governance and conduct. Patients and/or lay members of the public are increasingly included in trial oversight committees, influenced by international patient and public ...

    Authors: K. D. Coulman, A. Nicholson, A. Shaw, A. Daykin, L. E. Selman, R. Macefield, G. W. Shorter, H. Cramer, M. R. Sydes, C. Gamble, M. E. Pick, G. Taylor and J. A. Lane

    Citation: Trials 2020 21:543

    Content type: Research

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  25. Most individuals with dementia or mild cognitive impairment (MCI) have multiple chronic conditions (MCC). The combination leads to multiple medications and complex medication regimens and is associated with in...

    Authors: E. A. Bayliss, S. M. Shetterly, M. L. Drace, J. Norton, A. R. Green, E. Reeve, L. A. Weffald, L. Wright, M. L. Maciejewski, O. C. Sheehan, J. L. Wolff, K. S. Gleason, C. Kraus, M. Maiyani, M. Du Vall and C. M. Boyd

    Citation: Trials 2020 21:542

    Content type: Study protocol

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  26. There is increasing evidence for the use of lower insufflation pressures during laparoscopic surgery. Deep neuromuscular blockade allows for a safe reduction in intra-abdominal pressure without compromising th...

    Authors: Kim I. Albers, Fatih Polat, Ivo F. Panhuizen, Marc M. J. Snoeck, Gert-Jan Scheffer, Hans D. de Boer and Michiel C. Warlé

    Citation: Trials 2020 21:541

    Content type: Study protocol

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  27. The quality of clinical care of brain-dead potential organ donors may help reduce donor losses caused by irreversible or unreversed cardiac arrest and increase the number of organs donated. We sought to determ...

    Authors: Natalia Elis Giordani, Caroline Cabral Robinson, Glauco Adrieno Westphal, Regis Goulart Rosa, Daniel Sganzerla, Alexandre Biasi Cavalcanti, Flávia Ribeiro Machado, Luciano Cesar Pontes Azevedo, Fernando Augusto Bozza, Cassiano Teixeira, Joel de Andrade, Cristiano Augusto Franke, Cátia Moreira Guterres, Itiana Cardoso Madalena, Adriane Isabel Rohden, Sabrina Souza da Silva…

    Citation: Trials 2020 21:540

    Content type: Update

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  28. Acupuncture is well recognized for its unique therapeutic effect for many diseases as a nonpharmacological therapy in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). However, whether acupuncture can effectively treat fibr...

    Authors: Man Han, Jiakang Cui, Yuya Xiao, Donghong Xiao, Juan Jiao, Qiuwei Peng, Feng Tian, Xiaopo Tang, Jianyong Zhang and Quan Jiang

    Citation: Trials 2020 21:538

    Content type: Study protocol

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  29. Adaptive designs (ADs) allow pre-planned changes to an ongoing trial without compromising the validity of conclusions and it is essential to distinguish pre-planned from unplanned changes that may also occur. ...

    Authors: Munyaradzi Dimairo, Philip Pallmann, James Wason, Susan Todd, Thomas Jaki, Steven A. Julious, Adrian P. Mander, Christopher J. Weir, Franz Koenig, Marc K. Walton, Jon P. Nicholl, Elizabeth Coates, Katie Biggs, Toshimitsu Hamasaki, Michael A. Proschan, John A. Scott…

    Citation: Trials 2020 21:528

    Content type: Methodology

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  30. The majority of participants in weight loss trials are non-Hispanic White women, while men and women of color are underrepresented. This study presents data obtained from non-targeted and targeted recruitment ...

    Authors: Melissa M. Crane, Elisabeth M. Seburg, Rona L. Levy, Robert W. Jeffery and Nancy E. Sherwood

    Citation: Trials 2020 21:537

    Content type: Research

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  31. An amendment to this paper has been published and can be accessed via the original article.

    Authors: Christina M. Eckhardt, Matthew J. Cummings, Kartik N. Rajagopalan, Sarah Borden, Zachary C. Bitan, Allison Wolf, Alex Kantor, Thomas Briese, Benjamin J. Meyer, Samuel D. Jacobson, Dawn Scotto, Nischay Mishra, Neena M. Philip, Brie A. Stotler, Joseph Schwartz, Beth Shaz…

    Citation: Trials 2020 21:536

    Content type: Correction

    Published on:

    The original article was published in Trials 2020 21:499

  32. Data collection consumes a large proportion of clinical trial resources. Each data item requires time and effort for collection, processing and quality control procedures. In general, more data equals a heavie...

    Authors: Evelyn Crowley, Shaun Treweek, Katie Banister, Suzanne Breeman, Lynda Constable, Seonaidh Cotton, Anne Duncan, Adel El Feky, Heidi Gardner, Kirsteen Goodman, Doris Lanz, Alison McDonald, Emma Ogburn, Kath Starr, Natasha Stevens, Marie Valente…

    Citation: Trials 2020 21:535

    Content type: Methodology

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  33. Vaccines may cause non-specific effects (NSEs) on morbidity and mortality through immune-mediated mechanisms that are not explained by the prevention of the targeted disease. Much of the evidence for NSEs come...

    Authors: Darryn Knobel, Christianah Ibironke Odita, Anne Conan, Donna Barry, Marshalette Smith-Anthony, Juliet Battice, Shianne England and Bradford D. Gessner

    Citation: Trials 2020 21:534

    Content type: Study protocol

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  34. There has been growing evidence on the favourable outcomes of fast-track-recovery (FTR) surgery; to expedite recovery, minimise complications, and reduce the length of hospital stay for surgical patients. Howe...

    Authors: Chiou Yi Ho, Zuriati Ibrahim, Zalina Abu Zaid, Zulfitri ‘Azuan Mat Daud and Nor Baizura Md Yusop

    Citation: Trials 2020 21:533

    Content type: Study protocol

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  35. Perceived high chronic stress is twice as prevalent among German general practitioners (GPs) and non-physician medical staff compared to the general population. The reasons are multi-factorial and include pati...

    Authors: Birgitta M. Weltermann, Christine Kersting, Claudia Pieper, Tanja Seifried-Dübon, Annegret Dreher, Karen Linden, Esther Rind, Claudia Ose, Karl-Heinz Jöckel, Florian Junne, Brigitte Werners, Verena Schroeder, Jean-Marie Bois, Achim Siegel, Anika Thielmann, Monika A. Rieger…

    Citation: Trials 2020 21:532

    Content type: Study protocol

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  36. Colonic diverticular disease has been increasing in prevalence due to the rapidly aging global population, but standard treatment has not changed dramatically in recent years. Daiobotanpito (DBT; Da Huang Mu Dan ...

    Authors: Keiko Ogawa-Ochiai, Kenichi Yoshimura, Akiko Shirai, Seisho Sakai, Hideki Moriyama, Keishi Nakamura, Toshinori Murayama and Hideki Ishikawa

    Citation: Trials 2020 21:531

    Content type: Study protocol

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  37. There are few sources of published data on intra-cluster correlation coefficients (ICCs) amongst patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D) and/or hypertension in primary care, particularly in low- and middle-income ...

    Authors: Yi Lin Lee, Yvonne Mei Fong Lim, Kian Boon Law and Sheamini Sivasampu

    Citation: Trials 2020 21:530

    Content type: Methodology

    Published on:

  38. Despite its proven efficacy in reducing recurrence and improving survival, adherence to endocrine therapy (ET) is suboptimal in women with breast cancer (BC). Health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in BC has b...

    Authors: Ariane Mamguem Kamga, Cyril Di Martino, Amelie Anota, Sophie Paget-Bailly, Charles Coutant, Patrick Arveux, Isabelle Desmoulins and Tienhan Sandrine Dabakuyo-Yonli

    Citation: Trials 2020 21:527

    Content type: Study protocol

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  39. An amendment to this paper has been published and can be accessed via the original article.

    Authors: Nicola J. Christofides, Abigail M. Hatcher, Dumisani Rebombo, Ruari-Santiago McBride, Shehnaz Munshi, Angelica Pino, Nada Abdelatif, Dean Peacock, Jonathan Levin and Rachel K. Jewkes

    Citation: Trials 2020 21:526

    Content type: Correction

    Published on:

    The original article was published in Trials 2020 21:359

  40. Temporomandibular disorder (TMD) is a condition encompassing clinical symptoms of the temporomandibular joint, masseter muscle, and surrounding structures. Hominis placental pharmacopuncture (HPP), consisting ...

    Authors: Jongho Kim, Kyoung Sun Park, Yoon Jae Lee, Koh-Woon Kim, Jae-Heung Cho and In-Hyuk Ha

    Citation: Trials 2020 21:525

    Content type: Study protocol

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  41. Scaled-up direct-acting antiviral (DAA) treatment of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection among people who inject drugs (PWID) is crucial to reach the World Health Organization HCV elimination targets within 2030...

    Authors: H. Midgard, A. K. Finbråten, K. B. Malme, R. M. Berg-Pedersen, L. Tanum, I. C. Olsen, R. Bjørnestad and O. Dalgard

    Citation: Trials 2020 21:524

    Content type: Study protocol

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  42. The KERALINK trial tests the hypothesis that corneal cross-linking (CXL) treatment reduces the progression of keratoconus in comparison to standard care in patients aged 10–16 years. This article describes the...

    Authors: Kashfia Chowdhury, Caroline J. Doré, Catey Bunce and Daniel F. P. Larkin

    Citation: Trials 2020 21:523

    Content type: Update

    Published on:

  43. Perineal pain due to episiotomy is commonly reported and can be severe enough to disturb the mother–infant dyad during the postpartum period. Its incidence at day 7 postpartum varies from 63% to 74%. Recent st...

    Authors: Claire Cardaillac, Stéphane Ploteau, Aurélie Le Thuaut, Vincent Dochez, Norbert Winer and Guillaume Ducarme

    Citation: Trials 2020 21:522

    Content type: Study protocol

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  44. Independent of pain intensity, pain-specific distress is highly predictive of pain treatment needs, including the need for prescription opioids. Given the inherently distressing nature of chronic pain, there i...

    Authors: Maisa S. Ziadni, Abby L. Chen, Tyler Winslow, Sean C. Mackey and Beth D. Darnall

    Citation: Trials 2020 21:521

    Content type: Study protocol

    Published on:

  45. To assess the safety and therapeutic effects of allogeneic human dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs) in treating severe pneumonia caused by COVID-19.

    Authors: Qingsong Ye, Hua Wang, Xia Xia, Chenliang Zhou, Zhiming Liu, Zun-en Xia, Zhan Zhang, Yang Zhao, Jun Yehenala, Si Wang, Gangqiao Zhou, Ke Hu, Bin Wu, Chu-Tse Wu, Songling Wang and Yan He

    Citation: Trials 2020 21:520

    Content type: Letter

    Published on:

  46. Individuals affected by heart failure (HF) may present fatigue, dyspnea, respiratory muscle weakness, and sympathetic activity hyperstimulation of the myocardium, among other symptoms. Conducting cardiac rehab...

    Authors: Jéssica Costa Leite, Daniella Cunha Brandão, Simone Cristina Soares Brandão, Helen Kerlen Bastos Fuzari, Tainá Maria Vidal, Jasiel Frutuoso, Maria Inês Remígio, Bruna Thays Santana de Araújo, Shirley Lima Campos and Armele Dornelas de Andrade

    Citation: Trials 2020 21:519

    Content type: Study protocol

    Published on:

  47. Firefighters’ health is often affected by a high prevalence of obesity and cardiovascular diseases, which are common risk factors for sudden cardiac death. The aim of this study is to investigate the feasibili...

    Authors: Wing Man Ng and Kin Cheung

    Citation: Trials 2020 21:518

    Content type: Study protocol

    Published on:

  48. Less invasive surfactant administration (LISA) is a way of giving surfactant without endotracheal intubation and has shown to be promising in reducing the incidence of bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) in prete...

    Authors: Jiajun Zhu, Yingying Bao, Lizhong Du, Huafei Huang, Qin lv, Yejun Jiang, Yuxuan Dai, Zhijun Chen, Jingyun Shi, Yongyan Shi, Chuangzhong Yang, Hua Mei, Hong Jiang, Yanhui Sun and Xuemei Sun

    Citation: Trials 2020 21:516

    Content type: Study protocol

    Published on:

  49. This study aimed to test the feasibility and titration methods used to achieve specific blood pressure (BP) control targets in hypertensive patients of rural China.

    Authors: Xiao Huang, Lishun Liu, Yun Song, Lan Gao, Min Zhao, Huihui Bao, Xianhui Qin, Yanqing Wu, Qinghua Wu, Chonglei Bi, Aiping Yue, Chongqian Fang, Hai Ma, Yimin Cui, Genfu Tang, Ping Li…

    Citation: Trials 2020 21:515

    Content type: Study protocol

    Published on:

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