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  1. Procedural sedation is essential for optimizing upper gastrointestinal endoscopy, particularly in high-risk patients with multiple underlying diseases. Respiratory and circulatory complications present signifi...

    Authors: Zhi Li, Daming Yuan, Yu Yu, Jie Xu, Weili Yang, Li Chen and Nanbo Luo
    Citation: Trials 2024 25:92
  2. Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is a rising threat in low-resource settings, largely driven by transmission in the community, outside health facilities. Inappropriate antibiotic use is one of the main modifiabl...

    Authors:
    Citation: Trials 2024 25:91
  3. Retinitis pigmentosa (RP) is an inherited disease characterized by a progressive loss of rod photoreceptors of the eye, leading to irreversible blindness. To date, to our knowledge, no clinical prospective stu...

    Authors: Wei Zhou, Ziyang Huang, Kai Xu, Yamin Li, Xiaoyu Li, Jiaxian Li, Yu Jin, Torkel Snellingen and Lina Liang
    Citation: Trials 2024 25:89
  4. Respiratory viral illness (RVI)—e.g., influenza, COVID-19—is a serious threat in long-term care (LTC) facilities. Standard infection control measures are suboptimal in LTC facilities because of residents’ cogn...

    Authors: Hayden P. Nix, Samantha Meeker, Caroline E. King, Melissa Andrew, Ian R. C. Davis, Prosper S. Koto, Meaghan Sim, Jennifer Murdoch, Glenn Patriquin, Chris Theriault, Stephanie Reidy, Michael Rockwood, Tara Sampalli, Samuel D. Searle and Kenneth Rockwood
    Citation: Trials 2024 25:88
  5. Despite treatment with highly effective antimalarial drugs, malaria annually claims the lives of over half a million children under 5-years of age in sub-Saharan Africa. Cerebral malaria (CM), defined as Plasmodi...

    Authors: Nginache Nampota-Nkomba, Osward M. Nyirenda, Jane Mallewa, Yamikani Chimalizeni, Nettie Dzabala, Michael P. Fay, Mathangi Gopalakrishnan, Matthew B. Laurens, Nicole F. O’Brien, Louis H. Miller, Susan K. Pierce, Brittany A. Riggle and Douglas G. Postels
    Citation: Trials 2024 25:87
  6. Lower respiratory tract infections (LRTIs) are among the most frequent infections and a significant contributor to inappropriate antibiotic prescription. Currently, no single diagnostic tool can reliably ident...

    Authors: Cécile Bessat, Roland Bingisser, Markus Schwendinger, Tim Bulaty, Yvan Fournier, Vincent Della Santa, Magali Pfeil, Dominique Schwab, Jörg D. Leuppi, Nicolas Geigy, Stephan Steuer, Friedemann Roos, Michael Christ, Adriana Sirova, Tanguy Espejo, Henk Riedel…
    Citation: Trials 2024 25:86
  7. A high concentration of inspired supplemental oxygen may possibly cause hypercapnia and acidosis and increase mortality in patients with acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (AECOPD). Ev...

    Authors: Arne Sylvester Rønde Jensen, Jan Brink Valentin, Mathilde Gundgaard Mulvad, Victor Hagenau, Søren Helbo Skaarup, Søren Paaske Johnsen, Ulla Væggemose and Martin Faurholdt Gude
    Citation: Trials 2024 25:85
  8. Dermatitis is a skin condition caused by multiple causes, including radiotherapy treatment. Pharmacological treatments can become chronic and are not exempt from side effects. The latest recommendations of the...

    Authors: Celia Jimenez-Garcia, Luis Angel Perula-de Torres, Enrique Villegas-Becerril, Juan Jose Muñoz-Gavilan, Maria Espinosa-Calvo, Gertrudis Montes-Redondo and Esperanza Romero-Rodriguez
    Citation: Trials 2024 25:84
  9. For the potential benefits of trials to reach all that they should, trials must be designed to ensure that those taking part reflect the population who will receive the intervention. However, adults with impai...

    Authors: Victoria Shepherd, Katherine Joyce, Amanda Lewis, Samantha Flynn, Madeleine Clout, Brittany Nocivelli, Jeremy Segrott and Shaun Treweek
    Citation: Trials 2024 25:83
  10. Cognitive impairments are prevalent across mood disorders and psychosis spectrum disorders, but there is a lack of real-life-like cognitive training programmes. Fully immersive virtual reality has the potentia...

    Authors: Andreas E. Jespersen, Anders Lumbye, Maj Vinberg, Louise Glenthøj, Merete Nordentoft, Eva E. Wæhrens, Gitte M. Knudsen, Guido Makransky and Kamilla W. Miskowiak
    Citation: Trials 2024 25:82
  11. Despite therapeutic hypothermia (TH) and neonatal intensive care, 45–50% of children affected by moderate-to-severe neonatal hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) die or suffer from long-term neurodevelopmenta...

    Authors: Corinna Engel, Mario Rüdiger, Manon J. N. L. Benders, Frank van Bel, Karel Allegaert, Gunnar Naulaers, Dirk Bassler, Katrin Klebermaß-Schrehof, Maximo Vento, Ana Vilan, Mari Falck, Isabella Mauro, Marjo Metsäranta, Sampsa Vanhatalo, Jan Mazela, Tuuli Metsvaht…
    Citation: Trials 2024 25:81

    The Correction to this article has been published in Trials 2024 25:192

  12. In an era focused on value-based healthcare, the quality of healthcare and resource allocation should be underpinned by empirical evidence. Pragmatic clinical trials (pRCTs) are essential in this endeavor, pro...

    Authors: Elmir Omerovic, Mark Petrie, Björn Redfors, Stephen Fremes, Gavin Murphy, Guillaume Marquis-Gravel, Alexandra Lansky, Eric Velazquez, Divaka Perera, Christopher Reid, Julian Smith, Peter van der Meer, Eric Lipsic, Peter Juni, John McMurray, Johann Bauersachs…
    Citation: Trials 2024 25:80
  13. In early 2021, the Department of Health and Social Care in the UK called for research on the safety and immunogenicity of concomitant administration of COVID-19 and influenza vaccines. Co-administration of the...

    Authors: Rosie Harris, Russell Thirard, Sarah Baos, Rajeka Lazarus, Rachel Todd, Jana Kirwan, Katherine Joyce, David Hutton, Maddie Clout, Heike Cappel-Porter, Lucy Culliford and Chris A. Rogers
    Citation: Trials 2024 25:79
  14. Unplanned hospital presentations may occur post-stroke due to inadequate preparation for transitioning from hospital to home. The Recovery-focused Community support to Avoid readmissions and improve Participation...

    Authors: Monique F. Kilkenny, Muideen T. Olaiya, Janette Cameron, Natasha A. Lannin, Nadine E. Andrew, Amanda G. Thrift, Maree Hackett, Ian Kneebone, Avril Drummond, Vincent Thijs, Olivia Brancatisano, Joosup Kim, Megan Reyneke, Shaun Hancock, Liam Allan, Fiona Ellery…
    Citation: Trials 2024 25:78
  15. Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 will coexist with humans for a long time, and it is therefore important to develop effective treatments for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Recent studies h...

    Authors: Xinlun Tian, Yan Xu, Luo Wang, Chongya Dong, Xiaoyan Yan, Junping Fan, Huaiya Xie, Hong Zhang, Jinglan Wang, Yongjian Liu, Yaqi Wang, Siqi Pan, Aohua Wu, Xueqi Liu, Chen Yao and Mengzhao Wang
    Citation: Trials 2024 25:77
  16. Physical activity levels are low in people with Parkinson’s disease (PD) and have proved difficult to increase with exercise programs alone. Intervention approaches that address both the capacity to engage in ...

    Authors: Sandra G. Brauer, Robyn M. Lamont and John D. O’Sullivan
    Citation: Trials 2024 25:76
  17. The onset of disability in bathing is particularly important for older adults as it can be rapidly followed by disability in other daily activities; this may represent a judicious time point for intervention i...

    Authors: Phillip J. Whitehead, Stuart Belshaw, Samantha Brady, Elizabeth Coleman, Alexandra Dean, Laura Doherty, Caroline Fairhurst, Sandra Francis-Farrell, Miriam Golding-Day, Joanne Gray, Maisie Martland, Jennifer McAnuff, Andrew McCarthy, Peter McMeekin, Natasha Mitchell, Melanie Narayanasamy…
    Citation: Trials 2024 25:75
  18. Postoperative pulmonary complications (PPCs) extend the length of stay of patients and increase the perioperative mortality rate after video-assisted thoracoscopic (VATS) pulmonary surgery. Thoracic paraverteb...

    Authors: Jiayu Zhu, Biyu Wei, Lili Wu, He Li, Yi Zhang, Jinfeng Lu, Shaofei Su, Chunhua Xi, Wei Liu and Guyan Wang
    Citation: Trials 2024 25:74
  19. Maternal oxygen supplementation is usually used as an intrauterine resuscitation technique to prevent fetal hypoxia and acidemia during delivery. However, there has been a great deal of controversy regarding t...

    Authors: Yun-Hui Li, Gui-Yu Lei, Jun Guo, Meng Yi, Yu-Jing Fu and Gu-Yan Wang
    Citation: Trials 2024 25:73
  20. Neurally adjusted ventilatory assist (NAVA) is a mode of mechanical ventilation that delivers oxygen pressures in proportion to electrical signals of the diaphragm. The proportional assistance can be adjusted ...

    Authors: Grace Poole, Christopher Harris, Sandeep Shetty, Theodore Dassios, Allan Jenkinson and Anne Greenough
    Citation: Trials 2024 25:72

    The Correction to this article has been published in Trials 2024 25:109

  21. In mental health care, the number of patients with diverse cultural backgrounds is growing. Nevertheless, evaluated training programs for transcultural competence are missing. Barriers for engaging in transcul...

    Authors: Selina Studer, Maria Kleinstäuber, Ulrike von Lersner and Cornelia Weise
    Citation: Trials 2024 25:71
  22. Delamanid and bedaquiline are two of the most recently developed antituberculosis (TB) drugs that have been extensively studied in patients with multidrug-resistant TB. There is currently a need for more poten...

    Authors: Rodney Dawson, Andreas H. Diacon, Simbarashe Takuva, Yongge Liu, Bo Zheng, Vatsala Karwe and Jeffrey Hafkin
    Citation: Trials 2024 25:70
  23. The perioperative antibiotic prophylaxis with 1st or 2nd generation cephalosporins is evidence-based in orthopedic surgery. There are, however, situations with a high risk of prophylaxis-resistant surgical sit...

    Authors: Ilker Uçkay, Hagen Bomberg, Markus Risch, Daniel Müller, Michael Betz and Mazda Farshad
    Citation: Trials 2024 25:69
  24. Uterine leiomyomas are common for reproductive-aged women and affect women’s quality of life due to heavy menstrual bleeding or dysmenorrhea. Leiomyomas grow according to estradiol exposure and decrease after ...

    Authors: Naoki Kawahara, Ryuji Kawaguchi, Konosuke Yamamoto, Kyohei Nishikawa, Motoki Matsuoka, Tomoka Maehana, Yosuke Fukui, Shoichiro Yamanaka, Sumire Sugimoto, Kana Iwai, Yuki Yamada, Hiroyuki Kurakami, Takumi Hirata, Ryuzo Takashima, Shota Suzuki, Kiyoshi Asada…
    Citation: Trials 2024 25:68
  25. Mastectomies are commonly performed and strongly associated with chronic postsurgical pain (CPSP), more specifically termed postmastectomy pain syndrome (PMPS), with 25–60% of patients reporting pain 3 months ...

    Authors: Jing Wang, Lisa V. Doan, Deborah Axelrod, John Rotrosen, Binhuan Wang, Hyung G. Park, Robert R. Edwards, Michele Curatolo, Carina Jackman and Raven Perez
    Citation: Trials 2024 25:67
  26. Robotic-assisted bronchoscopy has recently emerged as an alternative to electromagnetic navigational bronchoscopy for the evaluation of peripheral pulmonary lesions. While robotic-assisted bronchoscopy is prop...

    Authors: Rafael Paez, Robert J. Lentz, Cristina Salmon, Justin K. Siemann, See-Wei Low, Jonathan D. Casey, Heidi Chen, Sheau-Chiann Chen, Sameer Avasarala, Samira Shojaee, Otis B. Rickman, Christopher J. Lindsell, Cheryl L. Gatto, Todd W. Rice and Fabien Maldonado
    Citation: Trials 2024 25:66
  27. Minimally invasive direct coronary artery bypass (MIDCAB) surgery offers an effective option for coronary artery disease (CAD) patients with the avoidance of median sternotomy and fast postoperative recovery. ...

    Authors: Ling Xin, Lu Wang and Yi Feng
    Citation: Trials 2024 25:65
  28. Atelectasis after anesthesia induction in most patients undergoing general anesthesia may lead to postoperative pulmonary complications (PPCs) and affect postoperative outcomes. However, there is still no exis...

    Authors: Di Zhang, Yi Liang, Di Bao, Wei Xiong, Lu Li, Yaxin Wang, Bin Liu and Xu Jin
    Citation: Trials 2024 25:64
  29. Rectovaginal fistula (RVF) is an abnormal channel formed by epithelial tissue between the anterior wall of the rectum and the posterior wall of the vagina, which manifests as vaginal gassing and defecation. It...

    Authors: Dao-xiong Ye, Sheng-hui Huang, Yu Lin, Ying-Huang and Pan Chi
    Citation: Trials 2024 25:63
  30. The Identifying Child Anxiety Through Schools-identification to intervention (iCATS-i2i) trial is being conducted to establish whether ‘screening and intervention’, consisting of usual school practice plus a p...

    Authors: Susan Ball, Tessa Reardon, Cathy Creswell, Lucy Taylor, Paul Brown, Tamsin Ford, Alastair Gray, Claire Hill, Bec Jasper, Michael Larkin, Ian Macdonald, Fran Morgan, Jack Pollard, Michelle Sancho, Falko F. Sniehotta, Susan H. Spence…
    Citation: Trials 2024 25:62
  31. Autoimmune hepatitis (AIH) is a rare, chronic inflammatory disease of the liver. The treatment goal is reaching complete biochemical response (CR), defined as the normalisation of aspartate and alanine aminotr...

    Authors: Anna E. C. Stoelinga, Maarten E. Tushuizen, Wilbert B. van den Hout, Mar D. M. Rodriguez Girondo, Elsemieke S. de Vries, Amar D. Levens, Dirk-Jan A. R. Moes, Tom J. G. Gevers, Suzanne van der Meer, Hans T. Brouwer, Hendrik J. M. de Jonge, Ynte S. de Boer, Ulrich H. W. Beuers, Adriaan J. van der Meer, Aad P. van den Berg, Maureen M. J. Guichelaar…
    Citation: Trials 2024 25:61
  32. Cystic fibrosis is an inherited disease, which is caused by the CFTR protein defects due to mutations in the CFTR gene. Along with CFTR dysfunction, exocrine pancreatic insufficiency plays a key role in persis...

    Authors: Mahsa Soleimanzadeh, Saeedeh Talebi, Mahmoud Reza Jaafari, Seyed Javad Sayedi, Maryam Emadzadeh and Hamid Reza Kianifar
    Citation: Trials 2024 25:60
  33. High ambient air temperatures in Africa pose significant health and behavioral challenges in populations with limited access to cooling adaptations. The built environment can exacerbate heat exposure, making p...

    Authors: Aditi Bunker, Guillaume Compoaré, Maquins Odhiambo Sewe, Jose Guillermo Cedeno Laurent, Pascal Zabré, Valentin Boudo, Windpanga Aristide Ouédraogo, Lucienne Ouermi, Susan T. Jackson, Nicholas Arisco, Govind Vijayakumar, Ferhat Baran Yildirim, Sandra Barteit, Martina Anna Maggioni, Alistair Woodward, Jonathan J. Buonocore…
    Citation: Trials 2024 25:59
  34. The current standard of care (SoC) for the initial treatment of unresectable or metastatic well-differentiated gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine tumours (GEP-NET) requires initiation of first-generation so...

    Authors: Simron Singh, Diego Ferone, Jaume Capdevila, Jennifer Ang Chan, Wouter W. de Herder, Daniel Halperin, Josh Mailman, Lisa Hellström, Hanna Liedman, Agneta Svedberg and Fredrik Tiberg
    Citation: Trials 2024 25:58

    The Correction to this article has been published in Trials 2024 25:297

  35. Patients with mental disorders have a higher prevalence of sleep problems than the general population. Sleep problems may include insomnia, circadian rhythm disorders, or hypersomnia. A transdiagnostic approac...

    Authors: Mette Kragh, Henny Dyrberg, Maria Speed, Pernille Pedersen, Sanne Toft Kristiansen and Klaus Martiny
    Citation: Trials 2024 25:57
  36. Glucocorticoids (GC) are the standard treatment for giant cell arteritis (GCA), even though they are associated with adverse side effects and high relapse rates. Tocilizumab (TCZ), an interleukin-6 receptor an...

    Authors: Lena Kreis, Christian Dejaco, Wolfgang Andreas Schmidt, Robert Németh, Nils Venhoff and Valentin Sebastian Schäfer
    Citation: Trials 2024 25:56
  37. Treating Helicobacter pylori is becoming increasingly difficult with the development of bacterial resistance to many established treatment regimens. As a result, researchers are constantly looking for novel and e...

    Authors: Marouf Alhalabi and Rasha Almokdad
    Citation: Trials 2024 25:55
  38. Although research on the implementation of evidence-based psychological treatments (EBPTs) has advanced rapidly, research on the sustainment of implemented EBPTs remains limited. This is concerning, given that...

    Authors: Laurel D. Sarfan, Emma R. Agnew, Marlen Diaz, Ashby Cogan, Julia M. Spencer, Rafael Esteva Hache, Shannon Wiltsey Stirman, Cara C. Lewis, Amy M. Kilbourne and Allison G. Harvey
    Citation: Trials 2024 25:54
  39. Endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) is the standard treatment for early gastric neoplasms (EGN). Controlling intraoperative bleeding is crucial for ensuring safe and reliable procedures. ESD using the spray...

    Authors: Kosuke Maehara, Mitsuru Esaki, Yorinobu Sumida, Daisuke Yamaguchi, Kei Nishioka, Hitoshi Homma, Taisuke Inada, Kazuo Shiotsuki, Shin-Ichiro Fukuda, Hirotada Akiho, Tadahiro Nomura, Yumi Mizuta, Satoshi Ishida, Shun Fujimoto, Shunichiro Kimura, Yuichiro Tanaka…
    Citation: Trials 2024 25:53
  40. For complete revascularization, patients with diffuse coronary artery disease should have a coronary endarterectomy and a coronary artery bypass graft (CE-CABG). Sadly, CE can lead to a lack of endothelium, wh...

    Authors: Liang Chen, Ming-Xin Gao, Xin Du, Chi Wang, Wen-Yuan Yu, Hong-Li Liu, Xiao-Hang Ding, Bo-Lin Wang, Kui Zhang, Dong Xu, Zhen Han, Bao-Dong Xie, Ran Dong and Yang Yu
    Citation: Trials 2024 25:52
  41. A single injection of local anaesthetic (LA) in the erector spinae plane block (ESPB) can reduce pain after modified radical mastectomy (MRM) surgery, but the duration of analgesia is affected by the duration ...

    Authors: Liang Yu, Xiao-Juan Shen, He Liu, Yu-Ting Zhou, Qin Zhang, Zhen-Duo Zhang and Shu-Min Shen
    Citation: Trials 2024 25:51
  42. Patients with intermediate and high-risk oropharyngeal cancer (OPC) have poorer response to standard treatment and poorer overall survival compared to low-risk OPC. CompARE is designed to test alternative appr...

    Authors: Hisham Mehanna, Piers Gaunt, Anthony Kong, Andrew Hartley, Paul Sanghera, Martin Forster, Mehmet Sen, Vinidh Paleri, Charles Fong, Dinos Geropantas, Devraj Srinivasan, Satya Garikipati, Rafael Moleron, Georgina Casswell, Eleanor Aynsley, Amy Ward…
    Citation: Trials 2024 25:50
  43. The management of small gastric submucosal tumors (SMTs) originating from the muscularis propria layer (SMT-MPs) remains a subject of debate. Endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) is currently considered the ...

    Authors: Mingfeng Liu, Rui Yuan, Ke Zhan, Yichun Yang, Shan Li and Liang Deng
    Citation: Trials 2024 25:49
  44. Vitreous floaters are a common ocular condition that affects individuals of all ages. Although vitreous floaters are typically benign, they can significantly impair visual acuity and quality of life. Laser vit...

    Authors: Zhou Hangshuai, Jin Yanhua, Zhou Yao, Zhao Guangjin, Wu Hongyan and Chen Fanlian
    Citation: Trials 2024 25:48
  45. Patients with hematological malignancies received multiple hypodermic injections of recombinant human granulocyte colony-stimulating factor. Procedural pain is one of the most common iatrogenic causes of pain ...

    Authors: Jun-Jun Zhang, Ping Yu, Hui Dang, Cheng-Shuang Feng, Xiu-Jiang Long, Wen-Fa Huang, Lei Wang, Jie-Ling Li, Guo-Liang Tian, Jia-Quan Wen, Jun-Hui Mei and Yu-Xiang Li
    Citation: Trials 2024 25:47
  46. Children in Malawi face high rates of malnutrition and are at risk of not reaching their developmental potential. Community-based childcare centres (CBCCs) can be cost-effective platforms for scaling-up early ...

    Authors:
    Citation: Trials 2024 25:46
  47. Combined antihypertensive therapy has obvious advantages over single drug therapy. Hypertension guidelines fully affirm the efficacy of dual combination in initial antihypertensive therapy. Recent studies have...

    Authors: Xiexiong Zhao, Xingli Li, Tao Liu, Guoping Yang, Ye Chen, Miao Huang, Lin Zhao, Xiaogang Li and Weihong Jiang
    Citation: Trials 2024 25:45
  48. Anhedonia, which is defined as the inability to feel pleasure, is considered a core symptom of major depressive disorder (MDD). It can lead to several adverse outcomes in adolescents, including heightened dise...

    Authors: Runxin Lv, Min Cai, Nailong Tang, Yifan Shi, Yuyu Zhang, Nian Liu, Tianle Han, Yaochi Zhang and Huaning Wang
    Citation: Trials 2024 25:44
  49. Mandibular distraction osteogenesis (MDO) is a major part of the treatment for hemifacial microsomia patients. Due to the narrow surgical field of the intraoral approach, osteotomy accuracy is highly dependent...

    Authors: Xiangqi Liu, Ziwei Zhang, Wenqing Han, Zhijie Zhao, Byeong Seop Kim, Yingjie Yan, Xiaojun Chen, Xuetong Wang, Xin Li, Xianxian Yang, Bingshun Wang, Haisong Xu, Li Lin and Gang Chai
    Citation: Trials 2024 25:42
  50. A growing body of literature indicates that adolescent girls who talk with close friends about interpersonal problems or worries in an excessive, speculative way, and with an intense focus on distress (i.e., co-r...

    Authors: Patricia Vuijk, Kim Bul, Marieke Buil, Marloes Rauws, Keshia Curie, Charlotte Amesz, Ron Weerheijm and Heleen Riper
    Citation: Trials 2024 25:40

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