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  1. Content type: Study protocol

    In patients with septic shock, the presence of an elevated heart rate (HR) after fluid resuscitation marks a subgroup of patients with a particularly poor prognosis. Several studies have shown that HR control ...

    Authors: Martin Unger, Andrea Morelli, Mervyn Singer, Peter Radermacher, Sebastian Rehberg, Helmut Trimmel, Michael Joannidis, Gottfried Heinz, Vladimír Cerny, Pavel Dostál, Christian Siebers, Fabio Guarracino, Francesca Pratesi, Gianni Biancofiore, Massimo Girardis, Pavla Kadlecova…

    Citation: Trials 2018 19:637

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  2. Content type: Study protocol

    Caesarean sections (CSs) are associated with increased risk for maternal morbidity and mortality. The recommendations of the recently published German national health goal ‘Health in Childbirth’ (Gesundheit rund ...

    Authors: Gertrud M. Ayerle, Rainhild Schäfers, Elke Mattern, Sabine Striebich, Burkhard Haastert, Markus Vomhof, Andrea Icks, Yvonne Ronniger and Gregor Seliger

    Citation: Trials 2018 19:641

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  3. Content type: Study protocol

    The consumption of edible oils in China has increased rapidly in recent years, and the total amount of edible-oil intake in the country has ranked first in the world. The choice and intake of edible oils, as a...

    Authors: Rui Zhu, Xianglong Xu, Yong Zhao, Manoj Sharma and Zumin Shi

    Citation: Trials 2018 19:631

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  4. Content type: Study protocol

    The TRIAL-STIM Study aims to assess the diagnostic performance, clinical outcomes and cost-effectiveness of a screening trial prior to full implantation of a spinal cord stimulation (SCS) device.

    Authors: Sam Eldabe, Ashish Gulve, Simon Thomson, Ganesan Baranidharan, Rui Duarte, Susan Jowett, Harbinder Sandhu, Raymond Chadwick, Morag Brookes, Anisah Tariq, Jenny Earle, Jill Bell, Anu Kansal, Shelley Rhodes and Rod S. Taylor

    Citation: Trials 2018 19:633

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  5. Content type: Study protocol

    Excessive hepatic fat is associated with increased metabolic risk factors, production of inflammatory factors, and oxidative stress. High protein intake might trigger an increased hepatic lipid oxidation throu...

    Authors: Fatemeh Haidari, Abdollah Hojhabrimanesh, Bizhan Helli, Seyed Saeid Seyedian and Kambiz Ahmadi-Angali

    Citation: Trials 2018 19:634

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  6. Content type: Study protocol

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) affects between 8 and 18% of women and is the leading cause of female anovulatory infertility. Unfortunately, common treatments for women trying to conceive can be ineffective ...

    Authors: Dylan A. Cutler, Alana K. Shaw, Sheila M. Pride, Mohamed A. Bedaiwy and Anthony P. Cheung

    Citation: Trials 2018 19:632

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  7. Content type: Study protocol

    Bronchiolitis is an acute lower respiratory infection which predominantly affects young children. Treatment for bronchiolitis is limited to supportive therapy. Nasal oxygen therapy is part of routine care, and...

    Authors: Clare van Miert, Ricardo M. Fernandes, Helen Eccleson, Emma Bedson, Steven Lane, Matthew Peak, Kent Thorburn, Vanessa Compton, Kerry Woolfall, David Lacy, Paula Williamson and Paul S. McNamara

    Citation: Trials 2018 19:627

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  8. Content type: Study protocol

    This cluster-randomised monocentric controlled trial focuses on improving the uptake symptoms of mental health care in adolescents with chronic medical conditions who have been identified by screening to have ...

    Authors: Christina Reinauer, Rabea Viermann, Katharina Förtsch, Hannah Linderskamp, Petra Warschburger, Reinhard W. Holl, Doris Staab, Kirsten Minden, Rainer Muche, Matthias Domhardt, Harald Baumeister and Thomas Meissner

    Citation: Trials 2018 19:629

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  9. Content type: Study protocol

    Severe, chronic, and impairing irritability is a common presenting clinical problem in youth. Indeed, it was recently operationalized as disruptive mood dysregulation disorder (DMDD) in the DSM-5. However, to ...

    Authors: Simone P. Haller, Joel Stoddard, Caroline MacGillivray, Kelsey Stiles, Gretchen Perhamus, Ian S. Penton-Voak, Yair Bar-Haim, Marcus R. Munafò and Melissa A. Brotman

    Citation: Trials 2018 19:626

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  10. Content type: Commentary

    Recruitment of sufficient patients with Parkinson disease into clinical trials is a barrier to successful, timely study completion. Non-pharmacologic studies have shown to be even more challenging for recruitm...

    Authors: Deborah A. Hall, Charity Moore and Cynthia Comella

    Citation: Trials 2018 19:630

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  11. Content type: Study protocol

    The expansion of digital devices and widespread access to the Internet has opened up opportunities to provide patients with more personal information. It can be hypothesized that eHealth in addition to standar...

    Authors: Dirk P. A. Versteegden, Magaly J. J. Van himbeeck and Simon W. Nienhuijs

    Citation: Trials 2018 19:625

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  12. Content type: Study protocol

    Aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH) is a life-threatening condition that results from a ruptured cerebral vessel. Cerebral edema and vasospasm are common complications and frequently require treatment wi...

    Authors: Ofer Sadan, Owen Samuels, William H. Asbury, John J. Hanfelt and Kai Singbartl

    Citation: Trials 2018 19:628

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  13. Content type: Study protocol

    Postoperative pulmonary complications (PPCs) are frequent after on-pump cardiac surgery. Cardiac surgery results in a complex pulmonary insult leading to high susceptibility to perioperative pulmonary atelecta...

    Authors: David Lagier, François Fischer, William Fornier, Jean-Luc Fellahi, Pascal Colson, Bernard Cholley, Samir Jaber, Karine Baumstarck and Catherine Guidon

    Citation: Trials 2018 19:624

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  14. Content type: Study protocol

    Most smokers struggle to overcome tobacco addiction. Neuroscientific models of addiction emphasize the importance of brain regions associated with cognitive control and reward to understand the cycle of addict...

    Authors: Andrew T. Fox, Delwyn Catley, Kimber P. Richter, Edward F. Ellerbeck, Morgan G. Brucks, Vlad B. Papa and Laura E. Martin

    Citation: Trials 2018 19:623

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  15. Content type: Research

    Sharing interim result measures by the Data Safety Monitoring Board (DSMB) with non-DSMB members is an important issue that can affect trial integrity. Currently, it is unclear if there are demographic factors...

    Authors: Victoria Borg Debono, Lawrence Mbuagbaw, James Paul, Norman Buckley and Lehana Thabane

    Citation: Trials 2018 19:621

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  16. Content type: Study protocol

    Premature ejaculation (PE) is the most common sexual dysfunction among men. According to patients, the general practitioner (GP) is the appropriate professional with whom to discuss this issue. However, few pa...

    Authors: Marie Barais, Hélène Vaillant Roussel, David Costa, Jérémy Derriennic, Bruno Pereira and Sébastien Cadier

    Citation: Trials 2018 19:622

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  17. Content type: Study protocol

    Community-acquired pneumonia, especially severe community-acquired pneumonia (SCAP), remains the leading cause of death in the world. Despite advances in antimicrobial therapy, the mortality rates due to SCAP ...

    Authors: Haifeng Wang, Jiansheng Li, Xueqing Yu and Su-yun Li

    Citation: Trials 2018 19:620

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  18. Content type: Research

    Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is a phase in cognitive decline when it is still possible to intervene to reverse the decline. Cognitive stimulation delivered through psychosocial interventions provides both p...

    Authors: Rathi Mahendran, Mihir Gandhi, Rajesh Babu Moorakonda, Jonathan Wong, Madhu Mathi Kanchi, Johnson Fam, Iris Rawtaer, Alan Prem Kumar, Lei Feng and Ee Heok Kua

    Citation: Trials 2018 19:615

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  19. Content type: Study protocol

    Smoking cessation is the most common preventative for an array of diseases, including lung cancer and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Although there are many efforts advocating for smoking cessation, sm...

    Authors: Santiago Hors-Fraile, Shwetambara Malwade, Dimitris Spachos, Luis Fernandez-Luque, Chien-Tien Su, Wei-Li Jeng, Shabbir Syed-Abdul, Panagiotis Bamidis and Yu-Chuan(Jack) Li

    Citation: Trials 2018 19:618

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  20. Content type: Study protocol

    Over 12,000 new cases of B-cell malignancies are diagnosed in the UK each year, with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) and follicular lymphoma (FL) being the most common subtypes. Standard frontline therap...

    Authors: Sean H. Lim, Kim M. Linton, Graham P. Collins, Joke Dhondt, Joshua Caddy, Liz Rossiter, Karan Vadher, Keira Fines, Laura E. Rogers, Diana Fernando, Louise Stanton, Andrew J. Davies, Peter W. M. Johnson and Gareth Griffiths

    Citation: Trials 2018 19:619

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  21. Content type: Study protocol

    At least half of all adult women will experience infective cystitis (urinary tract infection: UTI) at least once in their life and many suffer from repeated episodes. Recurrent urinary tract infection (rUTI) i...

    Authors: Rebecca Forbes, Ased Ali, Alaa Abouhajar, Catherine Brennand, Heather Brown, Sonya Carnell, Thomas Chadwick, Ian Eardley, Jan Lecouturier, Helen Mossop, Ian Pearce, Robert Pickard, Nikesh Thiruchelvam, Katherine Walton, Jennifer Wilkinson and Chris Harding

    Citation: Trials 2018 19:616

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  22. Content type: Study protocol

    A temporary loop ileostomy, which is used to decrease the risk of symptomatic anastamotic leakage after anterior resection and total mesorectal excision (TME), is traditionally closed without any mesh. However...

    Authors: Elisa Mäkäräinen-Uhlbäck, Heikki Wiik, Jyrki Kössi, Pasi Ohtonen and Tero Rautio

    Citation: Trials 2018 19:617

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  23. Content type: Study protocol

    Intensive rehabilitation of patients with severe traumatic brain injury is generally applied in the subacute stages of the hospital stay. Few studies have assessed the association between early and intensive p...

    Authors: Christian Gunge Riberholt, Jane Lindschou, Christian Gluud, Jesper Mehlsen and Kirsten Møller

    Citation: Trials 2018 19:612

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  24. Content type: Study protocol

    The mesenteric approach is an artery-first approach to pancreaticoduodenectomy for pancreatic cancer, which starts with the dissection of connective tissues around the superior mesenteric artery. The procedure...

    Authors: Seiko Hirono, Manabu Kawai, Ken-ichi Okada, Tsutomu Fujii, Masayuki Sho, Sohei Satoi, Ryosuke Amano, Hidetoshi Eguchi, Yuko Mataki, Masafumi Nakamura, Ippei Matsumoto, Hideo Baba, Masaji Tani, Yasunari Kawabata, Yuichi Nagakawa, Suguru Yamada…

    Citation: Trials 2018 19:613

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  25. Content type: Study protocol

    Optimising the use of antibiotic agents is a pressing challenge to overcoming the rapid emergence and spread of multidrug-resistant pathogens in intensive care units (ICUs). Although Gram staining may possibly...

    Authors: Jumpei Yoshimura, Kazuma Yamakawa, Takahiro Kinoshita, Yoshinori Ohta and Takeshi Morimoto

    Citation: Trials 2018 19:614

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  26. Content type: Study protocol

    Children hospitalised with severe anaemia in malaria endemic areas in Africa are at high risk of readmission or death within 6 months post-discharge. Currently, no strategy specifically addresses this period. ...

    Authors: Titus K. Kwambai, Aggrey Dhabangi, Richard Idro, Robert Opoka, Simon Kariuki, Aaron M. Samuels, Meghna Desai, Michael Boele van Hensbroek, Chandy C. John, Bjarne Robberstad, Duolao Wang, Kamija Phiri and Feiko O. ter Kuile

    Citation: Trials 2018 19:610

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  27. Content type: Study protocol

    Spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) is a serious threat to human health. Although early blood pressure (BP) elevation is closely associated with a poor prognosis, the optimal antihypertensive regimen fo...

    Authors: Rui Dong, Fen Li, Ying Xu, Pingyan Chen, Marc Maegele, Hong Yang and Wenjin Chen

    Citation: Trials 2018 19:607

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  28. Content type: Study protocol

    The concept of informed consent is fundamental to medical practice. Shortcomings in the process can lead to patient complaints, litigation, unmet expectations and poor outcomes. Consent research has focused on...

    Authors: Liam J. Convie, Scott McCain, Jeffrey Campbell, Stephen J. Kirk and Mike Clarke

    Citation: Trials 2018 19:609

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  29. Content type: Study protocol

    Bipolar disorder (BD) and unipolar disorder (UD) are associated with cognitive deficits and abnormal neural activity in a “cognitive control network.” There is an increased prevalence of cognitive dysfunction ...

    Authors: Jeff Zarp Petersen, Lejla Sjanic Schmidt, Maj Vinberg, Martin Balslev Jørgensen, Ida Hageman, Hannelore Ehrenreich, Gitte Moos Knudsen, Lars Vedel Kessing and Kamilla Woznica Miskowiak

    Citation: Trials 2018 19:611

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  30. Content type: Study protocol

    Low-dose aspirin (LDA) has been proposed as a safe and inexpensive prophylactic agent. Studies in European/Western populations have shown promising results indicating that LDA can reduce the occurrence of pre-...

    Authors: Li Lin, Yuchun Zhu, Boya Li and Huixia Yang

    Citation: Trials 2018 19:608

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  31. Content type: Methodology

    A key step in the design of a RCT is the estimation of the number of participants needed in the study. The most common approach is to specify a target difference between the treatments for the primary outcome ...

    Authors: Jonathan A. Cook, Steven A. Julious, William Sones, Lisa V. Hampson, Catherine Hewitt, Jesse A. Berlin, Deborah Ashby, Richard Emsley, Dean A. Fergusson, Stephen J. Walters, Edward C. F. Wilson, Graeme Maclennan, Nigel Stallard, Joanne C. Rothwell, Martin Bland, Louise Brown…

    Citation: Trials 2018 19:606

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  32. Content type: Update

    Cholecystectomy is the preferred treatment for symptomatic cholecystolithiasis. However, persistent pain after cholecystectomy for symptomatic cholecystolithiasis is reported in up to 40% of patients. The aim ...

    Authors: Sarah Z. Wennmacker, Aafke H. van Dijk, Joost P. H. Drenth, Sandra C. Donkervoort, Djamila Boerma, Gert P. Westert, Cornelis J. H. M. van Laarhoven, Marja A. Boermeester, Marcel G. W. Dijkgraaf and Philip R. de Reuver

    Citation: Trials 2018 19:604

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    The Study protocol to this article has been published in BMC Surgery 2016 16:46

  33. Content type: Study protocol

    Cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) is an established treatment in patients with heart failure and prolonged QRS duration where a biventricular pacemaker is implanted to achieve faster activation and more ...

    Authors: Charlotte Stephansen, Anders Sommer, Mads Brix Kronborg, Jesper Møller Jensen, Kirsten Bouchelouche and Jens Cosedis Nielsen

    Citation: Trials 2018 19:600

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  34. Content type: Study protocol

    People with alcohol use disorders often exhibit an “alcohol approach bias”, the automatically triggered action tendency to approach alcohol. Approach bias is likely to persist following withdrawal from alcohol...

    Authors: Victoria Manning, Joshua B. B. Garfield, Samuel C. Campbell, John Reynolds, Petra K. Staiger, Jarrad A. G. Lum, Kate Hall, Reinout W. Wiers, Dan I. Lubman and Antonio Verdejo-Garcia

    Citation: Trials 2018 19:598

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  35. Content type: Update

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most common endocrinopathy of reproductive-aged women. Clomiphene is regarded as the first-line medical treatment for ovulation induction in PCOS patients and acupunctur...

    Authors: Hong-Li Ma, Liang-Zhen Xie, Jing-Shu Gao, Jing Cong, Ying-Ying Deng, Ernest H. Y. Ng, Jian-Ping Liu and Xiao-Ke Wu

    Citation: Trials 2018 19:601

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  36. Content type: Study protocol

    Hypoxemia is a major complication in obese patients undergoing gastrointestinal endoscopy under intravenous anesthesia or sedation due to altered airway anatomy. We design this randomized controlled trial (RCT...

    Authors: Liu-Jia-Zi Shao, Shao-Hua Liu, Fu-Kun Liu, Yi Zou, Hai-Jun Hou, Ming Tian and Fu-Shan Xue

    Citation: Trials 2018 19:602

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  37. Content type: Study protocol

    Laser hair depilation is a promising therapy in the management of pilonidal disease. However, the large controlled trials needed to demonstrate the effectiveness of this practice have not been performed.

    Authors: Peter C. Minneci, Devin R. Halleran, Amy E. Lawrence, Beth A. Fischer, Jennifer N. Cooper and Katherine J. Deans

    Citation: Trials 2018 19:599

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  38. Content type: Study protocol

    Endovascular iliac artery interventions rely on the use of two-dimensional digital subtraction angiographies with an iodinated contrast agent and ionizing radiation. The amount of iodinated contrast agent shou...

    Authors: Seline R. Goudeketting, Stefan G. H. Heinen, Michiel W. de Haan, Anna M. Sailer, Daniel A. F. van den Heuvel, Marco J. van Strijen and Jean-Paul P. M. de Vries

    Citation: Trials 2018 19:603

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  39. Content type: Study protocol

    Obesity represents a major public health problem and is the fifth leading risk factor for mortality. Morbid obesity is associated with chronic systemic inflammation which increases the risk of comorbidities. B...

    Authors: Larissa Delgado André, Renata P. Basso-Vanelli, Luciana Di Thommazo-Luporini, Paula Angélica Ricci, Ramona Cabiddu, Soraia Pilon Jürgensen, Claudio Ricardo de Oliveira, Ross Arena and Audrey Borghi-Silva

    Citation: Trials 2018 19:597

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  40. Content type: Study protocol

    Despite advances in immunosuppressive therapy, kidney graft survival has failed to improve during the last decades. Ischemia/reperfusion injury (IRI) is one of the main pathophysiological mechanisms underlying...

    Authors: Sophie Girerd, Luc Frimat, Didier Ducloux, Yannick Le Meur, Christophe Mariat, Bruno Moulin, Christiane Mousson, Philippe Rieu, Nassim Dali-Youcef, Ludovic Merckle, Xavier Lepage, Patrick Rossignol, Nicolas Girerd and Frédéric Jaisser

    Citation: Trials 2018 19:595

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  41. Content type: Research

    The reported incidence of peripheral intravenous catheter (PIV) failure has been as high as 69%. This is in part due to inadequate stabilisation or securement to the skin, which allows micro-motion of the cath...

    Authors: Nicole Marsh, Emily Larsen, Jodie Genzel, Gabor Mihala, Amanda J. Ullman, Tricia Kleidon, Sue Cadigan and Claire M. Rickard

    Citation: Trials 2018 19:596

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  42. Content type: Study protocol

    Trauma is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in children in the United States. The antifibrinolytic drug tranexamic acid (TXA) improves survival in adults with traumatic hemorrhage, however, the drug...

    Authors: Daniel K. Nishijima, John VanBuren, Hilary A. Hewes, Sage R. Myers, Rachel M. Stanley, P. David Adelson, Sarah E. Barnhard, Matthew Bobinski, Simona Ghetti, James F. Holmes, Ian Roberts, Walton O. Schalick III, Nam K. Tran, Leah S. Tzimenatos, J. Michael Dean and Nathan Kuppermann

    Citation: Trials 2018 19:593

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  43. Content type: Study protocol

    As of September 2014, Kenya implemented the WHO recommended Option B+ guidelines in which all newly diagnosed HIV-infected pregnant women are immediately eligible for triple antiretroviral therapy (ART) for li...

    Authors: Bruce A. Larson, Margaret Bii, Isaac Tsikhutsu, Nafisa Halim, Vanessa Wolfman, Peter Coakley, William Sugut and Fredrick Sawe

    Citation: Trials 2018 19:594

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  44. Content type: Study protocol

    The research objectives of the Femoroacetabular Impingement Randomised controlled Trial (FIRST) are to assess whether surgical correction of the hip impingement morphology (arthroscopic osteochondroplasty) wit...

    Authors: Nicole Simunovic, D. Heels-Ansdell, L. Thabane and O. R. Ayeni

    Citation: Trials 2018 19:588

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  45. Content type: Research

    The value of qualitative methods within trials is widely recognised, but their full potential is not being realised. There are also issues with the visibility, recognition and reporting of qualitative methods ...

    Authors: Clare Clement, Suzanne L. Edwards, Frances Rapport, Ian T. Russell and Hayley A. Hutchings

    Citation: Trials 2018 19:589

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  46. Content type: Study protocol

    Halitosis is an unpleasant breath odour that can interfere with the professional life, social life and quality of life of people who suffer from it. A modality of treatment that has been increasing in dentistr...

    Authors: Marcela Leticia Leal Gonçalves, Ana Carolina Costa da Mota, Alessandro Melo Deana, Guelton Hirano Guedes, Lisyanne Araújo de Souza Cavalcante, Renato Araújo Prates, Anna Carolina Ratto Tempestini Horliana, Christiane Pavani, Lara Jansiski Motta, Greice de Brito Bitencourt, Kristianne Porta Santos Fernandes, Monica da Consolação Canuto Salgueiro, Raquel Agnelli Mesquita-Ferrari, Daniela Fátima Teixeira da Silva, Cristiane Miranda França and Sandra Kalil Bussadori

    Citation: Trials 2018 19:590

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  47. Content type: Correction

    Following publication of the original article [1], the authors reported an error in the sample size calculation.

    Authors: Luca Cioccari, Bjoern Zante, Andreas Bloch, David Berger, Andreas Limacher, Stephan M. Jakob, Jukka Takala and Tobias M. Merz

    Citation: Trials 2018 19:587

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    The original article was published in Trials 2018 19:362

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