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  1. The placebo effect as the symptom improvement following inert treatments is a fixed component of RCTs to differentiate between specific effects of the tested pharmacological substance from other unspecific eff...

    Authors: Martin Coenen, Ulrike Bingel, Matthias Zunhammer, Maria Soledad Berdaguer, Christine Fuhrmann, Rolf Fimmers, Jens Rengelshausen, Gunther Hartmann, Manfred Schedlowski and Christoph Coch
    Citation: Trials 2022 23:488
  2. Primary progressive aphasia (PPA) is a clinical dementia syndrome. Impairments in language (speaking, reading, writing, and understanding) are the primary and persistent symptoms. These impairments progress in...

    Authors: Angela C. Roberts, Alfred W. Rademaker, Elizabeth Ann Salley, Aimee Mooney, Darby Morhardt, Melanie Fried-Oken, Sandra Weintraub, Marsel Mesulam and Emily Rogalski
    Citation: Trials 2022 23:487
  3. The 4th Industrial Revolution with the advent of the smart era, in which artificial intelligence, such as big data analysis and machine learning, is expected, and the provision of healthcare services using sma...

    Authors: Bora Kim, Jong Youn Moon, Jae Yong Shin, Hae Rin Jeon, So Yeon Oh and Suk Young Kim
    Citation: Trials 2022 23:486
  4. Neurogenic bladder (NGB) is a chronic and disabling condition with a high prevalence rate, which can cause economic burden on patients and their families and reduce the quality of life of patients. Researchers...

    Authors: Yan Zhang, Yamin Chen, Mingming Niu, Yuanyuan Li, Jiaoyan Zhang, Li Zhang, Fangfang Wu, Qingyun Chen, Huijin Yu and Jinhui Tian
    Citation: Trials 2022 23:485
  5. Globally rifampicin-resistant tuberculosis disease affects around 460,000 people each year. Currently recommended regimens are 9–24 months duration, have poor efficacy and carry significant toxicity. A shorter...

    Authors: Catherine Berry, Philipp du Cros, Katherine Fielding, Suzanne Gajewski, Emil Kazounis, Timothy D. McHugh, Corinne Merle, Ilaria Motta, David A. J. Moore and Bern-Thomas Nyang’wa
    Citation: Trials 2022 23:484
  6. Treatment of superficial venous reflux has been shown to improve ulcer healing time and reduce the risk of ulcer recurrence. Terminal ablation of the reflux source (TIRS) is an alternative to formal endovenous...

    Authors: C. R. Keohane, D. Westby, M. Twyford, T. Ahern, W. Tawfick and S. R. Walsh
    Citation: Trials 2022 23:483
  7. Food addiction is one of the behavioral factors that play an important role in the pathogenesis of obesity. Much evidence is available suggesting intestinal microbiomes can play a role in eating behavior, body...

    Authors: Hanieh Irani, Banafsheh Khodami, Behnaz Abiri and Atoosa Saidpour
    Citation: Trials 2022 23:482
  8. For many women, uncomfortable and stressful symptoms accompany the menstrual cycle each month, sometimes in a debilitating manner. Previous studies have reported that gastrointestinal symptoms in healthy women...

    Authors: Taylor C. Judkins, Marie-Laure Oula, Shireen Madani Sims and Bobbi Langkamp-Henken
    Citation: Trials 2022 23:481
  9. Diabetes mellitus (DM) increases the risk of tuberculosis (TB) and will hamper global TB control due to the dramatic rise in type 2 DM in TB-endemic settings. In this trial, we will examine the efficacy and sa...

    Authors: Nyanda Elias Ntinginya, Lindsey te Brake, Issa Sabi, Nyasatu Chamba, Kajiru Kilonzo, Sweetness Laizer, Irene Andia-Biraro, Davis Kibirige, Andrew Peter Kyazze, Sandra Ninsiima, Julia A. Critchley, Renee Romeo, Josephine van de Maat, Willyhelmina Olomi, Lucy Mrema, David Magombola…
    Citation: Trials 2022 23:480
  10. The progressive ageing of the population is leading to an increase in multimorbidity and polypharmacy, which in turn may increase the risk of hospitalization and mortality. The enhancement of care with informa...

    Authors: Isabel del Cura-González, Juan A. López-Rodríguez, Francisca Leiva-Fernández, Luis A. Gimeno-Feliu, Victoria Pico-Soler, Mª. Josefa Bujalance-Zafra, Miguel Domínguez-Santaella, Elena Polentinos-Castro, Beatriz Poblador-Plou, Paula Ara-Bardají, Mercedes Aza-Pascual-Salcedo, Marisa Rogero-Blanco, Marcos Castillo-Jiménez, Cristina Lozano-Hernández, Antonio Gimeno-Miguel, Francisca González-Rubio…
    Citation: Trials 2022 23:479
  11. Ventilator-associated pneumonia is a challenge in critical care and is associated with high mortality and morbidity. Although some consensuses on preventing ventilator-associated pneumonia are reached, it is s...

    Authors: Linhui Hu, Kaiyi Peng, Xiangwei Huang, Zheng Wang, Quanzhong Wu, Yumei Xiao, Yating Hou, Yuemei He, Xinjuan Zhou and Chunbo Chen
    Citation: Trials 2022 23:478
  12. Kidney failure and dialysis treatment have a large impact on a patient’s life. Patients experience numerous, complex symptoms and usually have multiple comorbid conditions. Despite the multitude of problems, p...

    Authors: Judith Tommel, Andrea W. M. Evers, Henk W. van Hamersvelt, Sandra van Dijk, Niels H. Chavannes, Lieke Wirken, Luuk B. Hilbrands and Henriët van Middendorp
    Citation: Trials 2022 23:477
  13. Orthodontic treatment is commonly more time-consuming in adults than in teenagers, especially when it comes to the maxillary en-masse retraction, which may take 9 months or even longer. As to solve this concer...

    Authors: Yichen Xu, Liming Yu, Xianqin Tong, Yuhui Wang, Yuanyuan Li, Jie Pan, Yanjing Yang and Yuehua Liu
    Citation: Trials 2022 23:476
  14. People with disadvantaged backgrounds are less likely to visit the dentist for planned care, even though they have disproportionately poorer oral health. They are correspondingly more likely to experience dent...

    Authors: R. Harris, V. Lowers, C. Hulme, G. Burnside, A. Best, J. E. Clarkson, R. Cooke, M. Van Der Zande and R. Maitland
    Citation: Trials 2022 23:475
  15. Results from the STREAM stage 1 trial showed that a 9-month regimen for patients with rifampicin-resistant tuberculosis was non-inferior to the 20-month regimen recommended by the 2011 WHO treatment guidelines...

    Authors: Ruth L. Goodall, Karen Sanders, Gay Bronson, Meera Gurumurthy, Gabriela Torrea, Sarah Meredith, Andrew Nunn and I. D. Rusen
    Citation: Trials 2022 23:474

    The Study protocol to this article has been published in Trials 2014 15:353

  16. Rehabilitation strategies after abdominal surgery enhance recovery and improve outcome. A cornerstone of rehabilitation is respiratory physiotherapy with inspiratory muscle training to enhance pulmonary function.

    Authors: D. L. Birrer, C. Kuemmerli, A. Obwegeser, M. Liebi, S. von Felten, K. Pettersson and K. Horisberger
    Citation: Trials 2022 23:473
  17. COVID-19 pandemic has made the disease a major global problem by creating a significant burden on health, economic, and social status. To date, there are no effective and approved medications for this disease....

    Authors: Gholamreza Askari, Amirhossein Sahebkar, Davood Soleimani, Atena Mahdavi, Sahar Rafiee, Muhammed Majeed, Farzin Khorvash, Bijan Iraj, Mahshid Elyasi, Mohammad Hossein Rouhani and Mohammad Bagherniya
    Citation: Trials 2022 23:472
  18. Trials involving adults who lack capacity to consent encounter a range of ethical and methodological challenges, resulting in these populations frequently being excluded from research. Currently, there is litt...

    Authors: Victoria Shepherd, Kerenza Hood and Fiona Wood
    Citation: Trials 2022 23:471
  19. The response rate of the first-line therapy with corticosteroid for acute graft versus host disease (aGVHD) is about 50%, and steroid-refractory disease is associated with high mortality. The improved response...

    Authors: Liping Dou, Bo Peng, Xin Li, Lu Wang, Mingyu Jia, Lingmin Xu, Fei Li and Daihong Liu
    Citation: Trials 2022 23:470
  20. Patients with chronic low back pain (CLBP) frequently present with kinesiophobia. Though large body of evidence reported the impact of kinesiophobia in patients with CLBP, there are paucity of studies in assoc...

    Authors: Praveen Kumar Kandakurti, Watson Arulsingh and Sharad S Patil
    Citation: Trials 2022 23:469
  21. Frailty is expressed by a reduction in physical capacity, mobility, muscle strength, and endurance. (Pre-)frailty is present in up to 42% of the older surgical population, with an increased risk for peri- and ...

    Authors: Stefan J. Schaller, Jörn Kiselev, Verena Loidl, Wilm Quentin, Katrin Schmidt, Rudolf Mörgeli, Tanja Rombey, Reinhard Busse, Ulrich Mansmann and Claudia Spies
    Citation: Trials 2022 23:468
  22. Hepaticojejunostomy is commonly performed in hepato-bilio-pancreatic surgery, particularly during pancreaticoduodenectomy. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the safety and efficiency of two commonly app...

    Authors: Maximilian Brunner, Henriette Golcher, Christian Krautz, Stephan Kersting, Georg F. Weber and Robert Grützmann
    Citation: Trials 2022 23:467
  23. Clinical trials during public health emergencies of novel medical products such as therapeutics and vaccines in resource-limited settings are daunting due to the limited capacity for regulatory assessment. Reg...

    Authors: Onome T. Abiri, Abdulai J. Bah, Michael Lahai, Durodami R. Lisk, James P. Komeh, Joy Johnson, Wiltshire C. N. Johnson, Sheku S. Mansaray, Joseph Sam Kanu, James B. W. Russell, Fawzi Thomas, Murtada M. Sesay, Thomas A. Conteh, Alphan Tejan-Kella, Mohamed Sesay, Manal Ghazzawi…
    Citation: Trials 2022 23:466
  24. Tobacco hazard is one of the most serious public health problems, accounting for up to 6 million deaths worldwide p.a. We aim to determine the efficacy and safety of acupuncture and/or nicotine replacement the...

    Authors: Qingsheng Wang, Runjing Dai, Hailiang Zhang, Xiaomei Jiang, Xiaojing Ma, Xiangrong Zhang, Shisan Bao, Dong Ren and Jingchun Fan
    Citation: Trials 2022 23:465
  25. Stillbirth and neonatal death are devastating pregnancy outcomes with long-lasting psychosocial consequences for parents and families, and wide-ranging economic impacts on health systems and society. It is ess...

    Authors: Siobhan A. Loughnan, Frances M. Boyle, David Ellwood, Sara Crocker, Ann Lancaster, Chrissie Astell, Julie Dean, Dell Horey, Emily Callander, Claire Jackson, Antonia Shand and Vicki Flenady
    Citation: Trials 2022 23:464
  26. Nearly 50% of men living with HIV in many countries are unaware of their HIV status; men also have lower uptake of HIV treatment and pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP). In SSA, highly mobile men such as those wor...

    Authors: Lila A. Sheira, Zachary A. Kwena, Edwin D. Charlebois, Kawango Agot, Benard Ayieko, Monica Gandhi, Elizabeth A. Bukusi, Harsha Thirumurthy and Carol S. Camlin
    Citation: Trials 2022 23:463
  27. Functional dyspepsia (FD) is one of the most common functional gastrointestinal disorders, with a high prevalence and significant influence on the quality of life (QoL). Either acupuncture or moxibustion is ef...

    Authors: Pan Zhang, Tao Yin, Yang-Ke Mao, Zhao-Xuan He, Sha Yang, Si-Qin Huang, Rui-Rui Sun and Fang Zeng
    Citation: Trials 2022 23:462
  28. Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is one of the most common medical disorders in pregnancy. Evidence has demonstrated that moderate-intensity physical activity may reduce the risk of gestational diabetes. Ho...

    Authors: Xiao Yang, Ji Zhang, Xiangzhi Wang, Yi Xu, Li Sun, Yingli Song, Ruijuan Bai, Hui Huang, Jing Zhang, Ruixing Zhang, Erfeng Guo and Lingling Gao
    Citation: Trials 2022 23:461
  29. Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most common heterogeneous endocrine disease among women of childbearing age, characterized by androgen excess and ovarian dysfunction. Aerobic exercise is an important s...

    Authors: Jing Zhao, Antonnette Ketlhoafetse, Xiangyun Liu and Yang Cao
    Citation: Trials 2022 23:459
  30. At the 2015 REWARD/EQUATOR conference on research waste, the late Doug Altman revealed that his only regret about his 1994 BMJ paper ‘The scandal of poor medical research’ was that he used the word ‘poor’ rather ...

    Authors: Stefania Pirosca, Frances Shiely, Mike Clarke and Shaun Treweek
    Citation: Trials 2022 23:458
  31. Trauma may be associated with significant to life-threatening blood loss, which in turn may increase the risk of complications and death, particularly in the absence of adequate treatment. Hydroxyethyl starch ...

    Authors: Clementina Duran Palma, Musawenkosi Mamba, Johan Geldenhuys, Oluwafolajimi Fadahun, Rolf Rossaint, Kai Zacharowski, Martin Brand, Óscar Díaz-Cambronero, Javier Belda, Martin Westphal, Ute Brauer, Dirk Dormann, Tamara Dehnhardt, Martin Hernandez-Gonzalez, Sonja Schmier, Dianne de Korte…
    Citation: Trials 2022 23:456
  32. Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has become the most prevalent form of chronic liver disease, with a global prevalence of 25% worldwide, but a consensus treatment is still lacking. Previous studies ha...

    Authors: Yuanlong Sun, Gaofeng Chen, Si Chen, Yanjie Wang, Yiyang Hu and Yu Zhao
    Citation: Trials 2022 23:455
  33. Functional dyspepsia (FD) is one of the most common functional gastrointestinal disorders. Based on the various symptoms present in patients with functional dyspepsia postprandial distress syndrome (FD-PDS), r...

    Authors: Mengli Xiao, Linda L. D. Zhong, Wai Ching Lam, Yingpan Zhao, Kok-Ann Gwee, Gerald Holtmann, Jan Tack, Hidekazu Suzuki, Min-Hu Chen, Yinglian Xiao, Xiaohua Hou, Jinsong Liu, Yang Li, Xu-Dong Tang and Fang Lu
    Citation: Trials 2022 23:454
  34. The outcome of non-surgical treatment is generally good, but the treatment course can be long and painful with approximately a quarter of the patients acquiring a nonunion. Both surgical and non-surgical treat...

    Authors: Dennis Karimi, Stig Brorson, Kaare S. Midtgaard, Tore Fjalestad, Aksel Paulsen, Per Olerud, Carl Ekholm, Olof Wolf and Bjarke Viberg
    Citation: Trials 2022 23:453
  35. Family caregivers play a vital, yet stressful role in managing the healthcare needs and optimizing the quality of life of patients with advanced cancer, from the time they are newly diagnosed until end of life...

    Authors: Avery C. Bechthold, Andres Azuero, Maria Pisu, Jennifer Young Pierce, Grant R. Williams, Richard A. Taylor, Rachel Wells, Kayleigh Curry, Rhiannon D. Reed, Erin R. Harrell, Shena Gazaway, Sarah Mollman, Sally Engler, Frank Puga, Marie A. Bakitas and J. Nicholas Dionne-Odom
    Citation: Trials 2022 23:452
  36. Healthcare workers represent one of the most affected categories by the adverse effects of the COVID-19 pandemic on mental health. Excessive stress and anxiety are critical factors that could compromise work p...

    Authors: Federica Pallavicini, Eleonora Orena, Simona di Santo, Luca Greci, Chiara Caragnano, Paolo Ranieri, Costanza Vuolato, Alessandro Pepe, Guido Veronese, Stefano Stefanini, Federica Achille, Antonios Dakanalis, Luca Bernardelli, Francesca Sforza, Angelo Rossini, Carlo Caltagirone…
    Citation: Trials 2022 23:451
  37. Major depressive disorder (MDD) and generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) are highly prevalent among university students and predict impaired college performance and later life role functioning. Yet most students...

    Authors: Corina Benjet, Ronald C. Kessler, Alan E. Kazdin, Pim Cuijpers, Yesica Albor, Nayib Carrasco Tapias, Carlos C. Contreras-Ibáñez, Ma Socorro Durán González, Sarah M. Gildea, Noé González, José Benjamín Guerrero López, Alex Luedtke, Maria Elena Medina-Mora, Jorge Palacios, Derek Richards, Alicia Salamanca-Sanabria…
    Citation: Trials 2022 23:450
  38. Climate change heavily affects child nutritional status in sub-Saharan Africa. Agricultural and dietary diversification are promising tools to balance agricultural yield losses and nutrient deficits in crops. ...

    Authors: Isabel Mank, Raissa Sorgho, Fanta Zerbo, Moubassira Kagoné, Boubacar Coulibaly, John Oguso, Michael Mbata, Sammy Khagayi, Erick M. O. Muok, Ali Sié and Ina Danquah
    Citation: Trials 2022 23:449

    The Correction to this article has been published in Trials 2022 23:489

  39. The implementation of person-centred, need-oriented and flexible care for people with substance-related problems is often insufficient, in large part due to the complexity of addiction support services among d...

    Authors: Annabel S. Mueller-Stierlin, Jeanette Röhrig, Christian Goetzl, Michael Krausz, Jutta Lehle, Elke Prestin, Vanessa-Emily Schoch, Lorenz Sutter, Jean Westenberg and Maurice Cabanis
    Citation: Trials 2022 23:448
  40. Gyejibokryeong-hwan (GBH) is an herbal medicine composed of five herbs. It has been widely used to treat gynaecological diseases in traditional East Asian medicine. Recent animal studies suggest antidepressant...

    Authors: Yujin Choi, In Chul Jung, Ju Yeon Kim, Seung-Hun Cho, Yunna Kim, Sun-Yong Chung, Hui-Yong Kwak, Doo Suk Lee, Wonwoo Lee, In-Jeong Nam, Changsop Yang and Mi Young Lee
    Citation: Trials 2022 23:447
  41. Lumbar disc herniation (LDH) is a common and frequently occurring disease in clinics. Low back pain and sciatica are the presenting symptoms of LDH. To some extent, it can be considered that measures with the ...

    Authors: Xian-zhu Wang, Kai-yang Xue, Ping-nan Chen, Cai-hong Xiao, Jin Cui and Jing Fu
    Citation: Trials 2022 23:446
  42. Syphilis has recently resurfaced as a significant public health problem. Since the 2000s, isolated syphilis outbreaks have increasingly occurred in North America, Europe, and Australia; in Brazil, there have b...

    Authors: Eliana M. Wendland, Vanessa M. de Oliveira, Luana Giongo Pedrotti, Flavia M. A. Souza, Gerson F. M. Pereira and Antonio Gerbase
    Citation: Trials 2022 23:445
  43. IgA nephropathy is the most common glomerular disease and is a common cause of progression to end-stage renal disease in patients with kidney diseases. Proteinuria levels are critical for the prognosis of pati...

    Authors: Qi Chen, Zi Wang, Jicheng Lv, Lijun Liu, Hang Li, Weiwei Sun, Yanhong Huo, Yingbo Guo, Cun Shen, Shichao Li, Zhenjie Chen and Jingwei Zhou
    Citation: Trials 2022 23:444
  44. Adolescents in low- and middle-income countries in need of mental health care often do not receive it due to stigma, cost, and lack of mental health professionals. Culturally appropriate, brief, and low-cost i...

    Authors: Katherine E. Venturo-Conerly, Natalie E. Johnson, Tom L. Osborn, Eve S. Puffer, Thomas Rusch, David M. Ndetei, Christine M. Wasanga, Victoria Mutiso, Christine Musyimi and John R. Weisz
    Citation: Trials 2022 23:443
  45. Cardiovascular exercise is an effective method to improve cardiovascular health outcomes, but also promote neuroplasticity during stroke recovery. Moderate-intensity continuous cardiovascular training (MICT) i...

    Authors: Lynden Rodrigues, Kevin Moncion, Janice J. Eng, Kenneth S. Noguchi, Elise Wiley, Bernat de Las Heras, Shane N. Sweet, Joyce Fung, Marilyn MacKay-Lyons, Aimee J. Nelson, Diogo Medeiros, Jennifer Crozier, Alexander Thiel, Ada Tang and Marc Roig
    Citation: Trials 2022 23:442
  46. Over 80% of the morbidity and mortality related to non-communicable diseases (NCDs) occurs in low-income and middle-income countries (LMICs). Community health workers (CHWs) may improve disease control and med...

    Authors: Rebecca Ingenhoff, Juliet Nandawula, Trishul Siddharthan, Isaac Ssekitoleko, Richard Munana, Benjamin E. Bodnar, Ivan Weswa, Bruce J. Kirenga, Gerald Mutungi, Markus van der Giet, Robert Kalyesubula and Felix Knauf
    Citation: Trials 2022 23:440
  47. Serious mental illness (SMI) affects 4.6% of the American population. While treatments are available, adherence to specific regimens is often suboptimal. Multiple organizations, such as the Substance Abuse and...

    Authors: Chantele Mitchell-Miland, Sharon McCarthy and Matthew Chinman
    Citation: Trials 2022 23:439
  48. Authors: Xavier Pourrat, Elise Berthy, Antoine Dupuis, Louise Barbier, Matthias Buchler, Leslie Grammatico Guillon, Fanny Monmousseau, Eric Ruspini, Ephrem Salamé, Solène Brunet Houdard and Bruno Giraudeau
    Citation: Trials 2022 23:438

    The original article was published in Trials 2021 22:782

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