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  1. Generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) is a psychiatric disorder characterized by a constant and unspecific anxiety that interferes with daily-life activities. Its high prevalence in general population and the sev...

    Authors: Alessandra Gorini and Giuseppe Riva
    Citation: Trials 2008 9:25
  2. Smoking remains a major public health problem; developing effective interventions to encourage more quit attempts, and to improve the success rate of self-quit attempts, is essential to reduce the numbers of p...

    Authors: Hazel Gilbert, Irwin Nazareth, Stephen Sutton, Richard Morris and Christine Godfrey
    Citation: Trials 2008 9:23
  3. A major barrier to accessing free government-provided antiretroviral treatment (ART) in South Africa is the shortage of suitably skilled health professionals. Current South African guidelines recommend that on...

    Authors: Lara R Fairall, Max O Bachmann, Merrick F Zwarenstein, Carl J Lombard, Kerry Uebel, Cloete van Vuuren, Dewald Steyn, Andrew Boulle and Eric D Bateman
    Citation: Trials 2008 9:21
  4. The CONSORT Statement provides recommendations for reporting randomized controlled trials. We assessed the extent to which leading medical journals that publish reports of randomized trials incorporate the CON...

    Authors: Sally Hopewell, Douglas G Altman, David Moher and Kenneth F Schulz
    Citation: Trials 2008 9:20
  5. Bone microarchitecture is a significant determinant of bone strength. So far, the assessment of bone microarchitecture has required bone biopsies, limiting its utilization in clinical practice to one single sk...

    Authors: Laura Richert, Brigitte Uebelhart, Marc Engelhardt, Moise Azria and René Rizzoli
    Citation: Trials 2008 9:19
  6. Although pacemakers are primarily used for the treatment of bradycardia, diagnostic data available in current pacemakers allow them to be also used as sophisticated, continuous monitoring devices. Easy access ...

    Authors: Jane Chen, Bruce L Wilkoff, Wassim Choucair, Todd J Cohen, George H Crossley, W Ben Johnson, Luc R Mongeon, Gerald A Serwer and Lou Sherfesee
    Citation: Trials 2008 9:18
  7. Infants born at extreme prematurity (below 28 weeks' gestation) are at high risk of developmental disability. A major risk factor for disability is having a low level of thyroid hormone which is recognised to ...

    Authors: Sze M Ng, Mark A Turner, Carrol Gamble, Mohammed Didi, Suresh Victor and Alan M Weindling
    Citation: Trials 2008 9:17
  8. Despite ethical imperatives, informing research participants about the results of the studies in which they take part is not often performed. This is due, in part, to the costs and burdens of communicating wit...

    Authors: Andrew L Avins, Stephen Bent, Amy Padula, Suzanne Staccone, Evelyn Badua and Harley Goldberg
    Citation: Trials 2008 9:16
  9. High blood pressure in patients with stroke increases the risk of recurrence but management in the community is often inadequate. Home blood pressure monitoring may increase patients' involvement in their care...

    Authors: Sally Kerry, Hugh Markus, Teck Khong, Reena Doshi, Rachel Conroy and Pippa Oakeshott
    Citation: Trials 2008 9:15
  10. Each year in the UK 2000 children attend emergency departments and 500 are admitted to hospital following a bath water scald. The long term effects can include disability, disfigurement or psychological harm a...

    Authors: Denise Kendrick, Jane Stewart, Carol Coupland, Michael Hayes, Nick Hopkins, Debbie McCabe, Robert Murphy, George O'Donnell, Ceri Phillips, David Radford, Jackie Ryan, Sherie Smith, Lindsay Groom and Elizabeth Towner
    Citation: Trials 2008 9:14
  11. The neuropsychological arm of the International Subarachnoid Aneurysm Trial (N-ISAT) evaluated the cognitive outcome of 573 patients at 12 months following subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH). The assessment includ...

    Authors: Richard B Scott, Fiona Eccles, Andrew Lloyd and Katherine Carpenter
    Citation: Trials 2008 9:13
  12. Symptoms in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HC) appear to be caused by diastolic dysfunction, myocardial ischemia, left ventricle (LV) outflow obstruction, and atrial fibrillation. However, clinical deterioration...

    Authors: Fatih Bayrak, Gokhan Kahveci, Muzaffer Degertekin and Bulent Mutlu
    Citation: Trials 2008 9:11
  13. Chronic back pain is a major public health problem and the primary reason patients seek acupuncture treatment. Therefore, an objective assessment of acupuncture efficacy is critical for making informed decisio...

    Authors: Daniel C Cherkin, Karen J Sherman, Charissa J Hogeboom, Janet H Erro, William E Barlow, Richard A Deyo and Andrew L Avins
    Citation: Trials 2008 9:10
  14. Spinal cord stimulation (SCS) and percutaneous myocardial laser revascularisation (PMR) are treatment modalities used to treat refractory angina pectoris, with the major aim of such treatment being the relief ...

    Authors: Sadia N Khan, Duncan C McNab, Linda D Sharples, Carol J Freeman, Ian Hardy, David L Stone and Peter M Schofield
    Citation: Trials 2008 9:9
  15. Acute Coronary Syndromes account for 15% of deaths in the UK, and patients remain at significant risk of re-admission for future complications and death. Pathologically the underlying process of atherosclerosi...

    Authors: David C Crossman, Allison C Morton, Julian P Gunn, John P Greenwood, Alistair S Hall, Keith AA Fox, Andrew J Lucking, Marcus D Flather, Belinda Lees and Claire E Foley
    Citation: Trials 2008 9:8
  16. The United Nations Millennium Development Goals look to substantial improvements in child and maternal survival. Morbidity and mortality during pregnancy, delivery and the postnatal period are prime obstacles ...

    Authors: Neena Shah More, Ujwala Bapat, Sushmita Das, Sarita Patil, Maya Porel, Leena Vaidya, Bhaveshree Koriya, Sarah Barnett, Anthony Costello, Armida Fernandez and David Osrin
    Citation: Trials 2008 9:7
  17. Medical management of thyroid eye disease remains controversial due to a paucity of high quality evidence on long-term treatment outcomes. Glucocorticoids are known to be effective initially but have significa...

    Authors: Rathie Rajendram, Richard WJ Lee, Mike J Potts, Geoff E Rose, Rajni Jain, Jane M Olver, Fion Bremner, Steven Hurel, Anne Cook, Rao Gattamaneni, Marjorie Tomlinson, Nicholas Plowman, Catey Bunce, Sandra P Hollinghurst, Laura Kingston, Sue Jackson…
    Citation: Trials 2008 9:6
  18. Common mental disorders (CMD) are a leading global burden of disease. Up to 30% of primary care attenders suffer from these disorders but most do not receive evidence-based drug or psychological treatments. Th...

    Authors: Vikram H Patel, Betty R Kirkwood, Sulochana Pednekar, Ricardo Araya, Michael King, Daniel Chisholm, Gregory Simon and Helen Weiss
    Citation: Trials 2008 9:4
  19. Although considered the reference standard for generating valid scientific evidence of a treatment's benefits and harms, the number of Randomised Controlled Trials (RCT) comparing surgical techniques remains l...

    Authors: Nuh N Rahbari, Markus K Diener, Lars Fischer, Moritz N Wente, Peter Kienle, Markus W Büchler and Christoph M Seiler
    Citation: Trials 2008 9:3
  20. In some randomized trials successful laparoscopic cholecystectomy for cholecystitis is associated with an earlier recovery and shorter hospital stay when compared with open cholecystectomy. Other studies did n...

    Authors: Fausto Catena, Luca Ansaloni, Salomone Di Saverio, Filippo Gazzotti, Stefano Gagliardi, Federico Coccolini, Luigi D'Alessandro, Giorgio Ercolani, Carlo Talarico, Uberto A Bassi, Leonardo Leone, Filippo Calzolari and Antonio D Pinna
    Citation: Trials 2008 9:1
  21. Recruiting to trials is complex and difficult. The Prevention of Pelvic Infection (POPI) trial aims to see if screening women for chlamydia and treating those found to be infected reduces the incidence of pelv...

    Authors: Helen Atherton, Debbie Banks, Ruth Harbit, Linzie Long, Fiona Chadd, Phillip Hay, Sally Kerry, Ian Simms and Pippa Oakeshott
    Citation: Trials 2007 8:41
  22. In recent years there has been an increasing interest in MRI as a non-invasive diagnostic modality for the work-up of suspicious breast lesions. The additional value of Breast MRI lies mainly in its capacity t...

    Authors: Nicky HGM Peters, Inne HM Borel Rinkes, Willem PTM Mali, Maurice AAJ van den Bosch, Remmert K Storm, Peter W Plaisier, Erwin de Boer, Adriaan J van Overbeeke and Petra HM Peeters
    Citation: Trials 2007 8:40
  23. OMERACT is the acronym for an international, informally organized network initiated in 1992 aimed at improving outcome measurement in rheumatology. Chaired by an executive committee, it organizes consensus con...

    Authors: Peter Tugwell, Maarten Boers, Peter Brooks, Lee Simon, Vibeke Strand and Leanne Idzerda
    Citation: Trials 2007 8:38
  24. Publicly funded clinical trials require a substantial commitment of time and money. To ensure that sufficient numbers of patients are recruited it is essential that they address important questions in a rigoro...

    Authors: David Francis, Ian Roberts, Diana R Elbourne, Haleema Shakur, Rosemary C Knight, Jo Garcia, Claire Snowdon, Vikki A Entwistle, Alison M McDonald, Adrian M Grant and Marion K Campbell
    Citation: Trials 2007 8:37
  25. Anaemia is a common complication of chronic kidney disease and prevalence increases with declining renal function. Renal anaemia has significant implications for the well-being and quality of life of patients ...

    Authors: Iain C Macdougall
    Citation: Trials 2007 8:35
  26. The choice of antiepileptic drug for an individual should be based upon the highest quality evidence regarding potential benefits and harms of the available treatments. Systematic reviews and meta-analysis of ...

    Authors: Catrin Tudur Smith, Anthony G Marson, David W Chadwick and Paula R Williamson
    Citation: Trials 2007 8:34
  27. The standard care in patients with a painful osteoporotic vertebral compression fracture (VCF) is conservative therapy. Percutaneous vertebroplasty (PV), a minimally invasive technique, is gaining popularity a...

    Authors: CAH Klazen, HJJ Verhaar, LEH Lampmann, JR Juttmann, MC Blonk, FH Jansen, AV Tielbeek, MC Schoemaker, E Buskens, Y van der Graaf, X Janssens, H Fransen, KJ van Everdingen, AF Muller, WPThM Mali and PNM Lohle
    Citation: Trials 2007 8:33
  28. The standard whole-colon tests used to investigate patients with symptoms of colorectal cancer are barium enema and colonoscopy. Colonoscopy is the reference test but is technically difficult, resource intensi...

    Authors: Steve Halligan, Richard J Lilford, Jane Wardle, Dion Morton, Pauline Rogers, Katherine Wooldrage, Rob Edwards, Reshma Kanani, Urvi Shah and Wendy Atkin
    Citation: Trials 2007 8:32
  29. Acute cholecystitis occurs frequently in the elderly and in patients with gall stones. Most cases of severe or recurrent cholecystitis eventually require surgery, usually laparoscopic cholecystectomy in the We...

    Authors: Kilian Weigand, Jörg Köninger, Jens Encke, Markus W Büchler, Wolfgang Stremmel and Carsten N Gutt
    Citation: Trials 2007 8:29
  30. Medication errors, adverse drug events and potential adverse drug events are common and serious in terms of the harms and costs that they impose on the health system and those who use it. Errors resulting in p...

    Authors: Merrick F Zwarenstein, Katie N Dainty, Sherman Quan, Alex Kiss and Neill KJ Adhikari
    Citation: Trials 2007 8:28
  31. Distraction osteogenesis is the standard treatment for the management of lower limb length discrepancy of more than 3 cm and bone loss secondary to congenital anomalies, trauma or infection. This technique con...

    Authors: Reggie C Hamdy, Kathleen Montpetit, Joanne Ruck-Gibis, Kelly Thorstad, Ellen Raney, Michael Aiona, Robert Platt, Allen Finley, William Mackenzie, James McCarthy and Unni Narayanan
    Citation: Trials 2007 8:27
  32. Diabetes Mellitus constitutes one of the most important public health problems due to its high prevalence and enormous social and economic consequences. Diabetic foot ulcers are one of the chronic complication...

    Authors: Sandra Y Silva, Ligia C Rueda, Gustavo A Márquez, Marcos López, Daniel J Smith, Carlos A Calderón, Juan C Castillo, Jaime Matute, Christian F Rueda-Clausen, Arturo Orduz, Federico A Silva, Piyaporn Kampeerapappun, Mahesh Bhide and Patricio López-Jaramillo
    Citation: Trials 2007 8:26
  33. Mortality rates in the Intensive Care Unit and subsequent hospital mortality rates in the UK remain high. Infections in Intensive Care are associated with a 2–3 times increased risk of death. It is thought tha...

    Authors: Peter JD Andrews, Alison Avenell, David W Noble, Marion K Campbell, Claire G Battison, Bernard L Croal, William G Simpson, John Norrie, Luke D Vale, Jonathon Cook, Robyn de Verteuil and Anne C Milne
    Citation: Trials 2007 8:25
  34. In orthodontic treatment, anchorage control is a fundamental aspect. Usually conventional mechanism for orthodontic anchorage control can be either extraoral or intraoral that is headgear or intermaxillary ela...

    Authors: Britta A Jung, Heinrich Wehrbein, Werner Hopfenmüller, Winfried Harzer, Tomasz Gedrange, Peter Diedrich and Martin Kunkel
    Citation: Trials 2007 8:24
  35. Despite a burgeoning interest in using interprofessional approaches to promote effective collaboration in health care, systematic reviews find scant evidence of benefit. This protocol describes the first clust...

    Authors: Merrick Zwarenstein, Scott Reeves, Ann Russell, Chris Kenaszchuk, Lesley Gotlib Conn, Karen-Lee Miller, Lorelei Lingard and Kevin E Thorpe
    Citation: Trials 2007 8:23
  36. Secondary hyperparathyroidism (sHPT) is common in patients with chronic renal failure. Despite the initiation of new therapeutic agents, several patients will require parathyroidectomy (PTX). Total PTX with au...

    Authors: Katja Schlosser, Johannes A Veit, Stefan Witte, Emilio Domínguez Fernández, Norbert Victor, Hans-Peter Knaebel, Christoph M Seiler and Matthias Rothmund
    Citation: Trials 2007 8:22
  37. Despite the high cardiovascular risk, evidence of efficacy of preventive strategies in individuals with diabetes is scant. In particular, recommendations on the use of aspirin in patients with diabetes mostly ...

    Authors: Giorgia De Berardis, Michele Sacco, Virgilio Evangelista, Alessandro Filippi, Carlo B Giorda, Gianni Tognoni, Umberto Valentini and Antonio Nicolucci
    Citation: Trials 2007 8:21
  38. Patients with end stage liver disease are characteristically malnourished which is associated with poor outcome. Formulas enriched with arginine, ω-3 fatty acids, and nucleotides, "immunonutrients", potentiall...

    Authors: Arash Nickkholgh, Heinz Schneider, Jens Encke, Markus W Büchler, Jan Schmidt and Peter Schemmer
    Citation: Trials 2007 8:20
  39. Dysphagia occurs in up to 50% of patients admitted to hospital with acute strokes with up to 27% remaining by seven days. Up to 8% continue to have swallowing problems six months after their stroke with 1.7% s...

    Authors: Jessica R Beavan, Simon Conroy, Jo Leonardi-Bee, Tim Bowling, Catherine Gaynor, John Gladman, Dawn Good, Peter Gorman, Rowan Harwood, Jan Riley, Tracey Sach and Wayne Sunman
    Citation: Trials 2007 8:19
  40. There is increasing interest in developing peer-led and 'expert patient'-type interventions, particularly to meet the support and informational needs of those with long term conditions, leading to improved cli...

    Authors: Jeremy Dale, Isabela Caramlau, Andrea Docherty, Jackie Sturt and Hilary Hearnshaw
    Citation: Trials 2007 8:18

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