- Open Access
- Open Peer Review
This article has Open Peer Review reports available.
Sample size implications of mortality definitions in sepsis: a retrospective cohort study
© The Author(s). 2018
Received: 6 November 2017
Accepted: 26 February 2018
Published: 27 March 2018
Many randomized controlled trials (RCTs) employ mortality at a given time as a primary outcome. There are at least three common ways to measure 90-day mortality: first, all-location mortality, that is, all-cause mortality within 90 days of randomization at any location. Second, ARDSnet mortality is death in a healthcare facility of greater intensity than the patient was in prior to the hospitalization during which they were randomized. Finally, in-hospital mortality is death prior to discharge from the primary hospitalization of randomization. Data comparing the impact of these different measurements on sample size are lacking. We evaluated the extent to which event rates vary by mortality definition.
This was a retrospective cohort study of 30,691 patients hospitalized at Veterans Affairs (VA) hospitals for sepsis during 2009. 12,727 (41.5%) received care in an ICU setting. For each patient, we measured event rates for three different 90-day mortality outcomes: all-location mortality, ARDSnet mortality, and in-hospital mortality. We also calculated sample sizes necessary to power an example RCT given those event rates.
At 90 days, all-location mortality was 26.4% (95% CI 25.9–26.9%), ARDSnet mortality was 19.2% (95% CI 18.8–19.7%), and in-hospital mortality was 13.4% (95% CI 13.0–13.8%) (p < 0.01 all comparisons). These respective event rates result in different required sample sizes to achieve a 20% relative reduction in mortality with 80% power and a 5% false positive rate. Such a trial of VA sepsis patients would require 2080 patients for all-location mortality, 3080 for ARDSnet mortality, and 4796 for in-hospital mortality. Among sepsis patients mechanically ventilated in an ICU, 2438 experienced all-location mortality (46.2% [95% CI 44.8–47.5%]), 2181 experienced ARDSnet mortality (41.3% [95% CI 40.0–42.6%]), and 1894 experienced in-hospital mortality (36.0% [95% CI 34.7–37.3%]).
Event rates vary substantially in sepsis patients based on the chosen 90-day mortality definition. This could have important implications for RCT design trade-offs.
Patient recruitment and outcome ascertainment are key components of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) . In the context of critically ill patients with sepsis, mortality is a common outcome chosen given the high event rates in this patient population . However, there are multiple ways to define mortality as an outcome. With limited budgets, trialists make critical trade-offs in allocating resources to patient recruitment to achieve adequate power and meet follow-up requirements for any particular chosen outcome [1, 3].
One strategy to improve efficiency is choosing a trial outcome that optimally balances these issues. For example, consider 90-day mortality in critical care trials . The outcome could be measured as 90-day all-location mortality (e.g., 6S trial) , which is all-cause mortality within 90 days of randomization at any location. Alternatively, it could be measured as ARDSnet mortality, or 90-day mortality in a healthcare facility of greater intensity than the patient was in prior to the hospitalization during which they were randomized (e.g., ARDSnet trials) . ARDSnet mortality is a relevant outcome for sepsis patients given that over 60% suffer from ARDS, with resultant higher mortality compared to non-ARDS sepsis patients . Finally, mortality could be measured as 90-day in-hospital mortality .
Given the largely negative RCTs in critical care concerning patients with sepsis, there have been calls to reassess the trial design process. One particular area of emphasis is how to define the chosen outcome [2, 8]. There are important implications for study design when deciding among mortality measures. Since 90-day all-location mortality captures deaths in all locations, it has the highest event rate. However, supplemental resources may be necessary to prevent loss to follow-up, including the hiring of additional personnel . Alternatively, 90-day in-hospital mortality offers a less complicated approach because patient follow-up ceases at hospital discharge. However, the lower event rates demand larger sample sizes to achieve the same statistical power. ARDSnet mortality offers an event rate between that of the previous two outcomes. Methodological factors regarding outcome measurement also exist. These include the presence or absence of national health systems, as well as the availability of automated or electronic patient data for follow-up. Unfortunately, there is little published data to quantitatively inform the selection of mortality endpoints.
In an effort to better inform RCT design, quantifying how varying mortality measures affect study power is necessary. Therefore, we compared event rates and sample sizes between 90-day all-location, ARDSnet, and in-hospital mortality. We studied a cohort of patients hospitalized for sepsis—as sepsis effects mortality for at least 2 years —and we performed stratified analyses to understand how severity of acute illness altered relative event rates.
This was a multi-center, retrospective cohort study of 32,680 patients hospitalized for sepsis in the US nationwide Veterans Affairs (VA) healthcare system (including more than 100 hospitals) during 2009. Sepsis hospitalizations were identified using the method of Angus et al. . We excluded transfer-in patients from the analysis because of an unclear start time for their hospitalization. For patients who had multiple hospitalizations for sepsis in 2009, only the first hospitalization was included.
Data sources and mortality endpoints
For each patient, we calculated three different mortality outcomes: 90-day all-location mortality, 90-day ARDSnet mortality, and 90-day in-hospital mortality. In order to calculate ARDSnet mortality, we ascertained each patient’s location prior to hospitalization and after discharge. We measured patient location using four data sources: (1) VA Inpatient Evaluation Center (IPEC) files on inpatient VA hospitalizations, (2) VA IPEC files on inpatient VA nursing homes, (3) MedPAR files, and (4) “fee-based” care files. The only patient care not in this database would be that which was paid for out of pocket or by Medicaid or private insurance, both of which are uncommon for patients enrolled in the VA system. There was no loss to follow-up regarding mortality given that the VA tracks patient mortality in both the inpatient and outpatient settings.
Collectively, these files capture all inpatient healthcare paid for or provided by the VA, as well as all non-VA care paid for by Medicare. We assumed that a patient’s location was at home for any day that he or she was known to be alive and not admitted to an inpatient healthcare facility based on the above files . These files are also linked to national death records to ensure accurate mortality estimates. By ascertaining each patient’s daily location for the one year before and after sepsis hospitalization, we ensured that no healthcare use was “double-counted” . The only patient care not in this database would be that which was paid for out of pocket or by private insurance not captured by Medicare. This database provides an ability to measure location of death and resource utilization , something that is extremely difficult to measure within private or Medicare claims .
The primary outcome was the calculated sample size for each of the three mortality measures. All calculations were made to detect a 20% relative reduction in mortality, with 80% power and a 5% false positive rate. We used relative reduction because this measure of treatment efficacy is the least impacted by variation in event rates [15, 16]. We also assumed a non-time varying reduction in mortality because this is the standard practice for power calculations in trials employing 90-day mortality as an endpoint. Calculations were done for the entire sample and in the subgroup that used both the intensive care unit (ICU) and mechanical ventilation (MV). A secondary analysis was done with calculations to detect a 5% absolute reduction in mortality (Additional file 1).
Cohort characteristics were analyzed as numbers (percentages), means (standard deviations [SD]), or medians (interquartile ranges [IQR]). The two-sample test of proportions assessed for differences between mortality event rates. Power calculations were done for each mortality outcome. We employed two-sided significance testing with a p value of less than 0.05 as significant, and we defined 95% confidence intervals (CI). We also compared the different mortality outcomes via survival analysis and Kaplan-Meier curves. The research was approved by the Ann Arbor VA Institutional Review Board. We used Stata MP version 14 for all analyses (StataCorp 2016, College Station, TX).
Patient demographics (N = 30,691)
Age, years (SD)
Male, N (%)
Comorbidities, N (%)
Chronic liver disease
Race, N (%)
Hospital length of stay, days (SD)
ICU, N (%)
Mechanically ventilated, N (%)
Number of deaths, mortality rates, and sample sizes for each mortality outcome: stratified by location and ventilation status. Sample size power calculations were those required to a 20% relative reduction in mortality, with 80% power and a 5% false positive rate
Overall cohort (N = 30,691)
# of deaths
Mortality rate (%)
No ICU stay (N = 17,964)
# of deaths
Mortality rate (%)
ICU stay, no MV (N = 7447)
# of deaths
Mortality rate (%)
ICU stay & MV (N = 5280)
# of deaths
Mortality rate (%)
When calculating sample sizes for studies of mechanically ventilated patients, all-location 90-day mortality required the smallest sample size: 892 patients. ARDSnet 90-day mortality would require 1074 patients, while in-hospital 90-day mortality would require the largest sample size of 1326 patients.
In this study of Veterans hospitalized for sepsis, we observed important differences in the sample size required for various 90-day mortality outcomes. All-location mortality required 57% fewer patients to achieve the same power compared to in-hospital mortality. In other words, an RCT would have to suffer a 28% loss to follow-up rate in each arm to negate the difference between overall and in-hospital mortality. These findings persisted even in sicker patients. In mechanically ventilated ICU patients, all-location 90-day mortality required 32% fewer patients compared to in-hospital mortality. These results have implications for sepsis trialists who seek to gain the most statistical power while facing limited budgets.
The conceptual limitations of in-hospital mortality have been well described for decades . However, our study uniquely compares in-hospital mortality with other definitions from a quantitative standpoint and notes a significant impact on event rates. This confers substantial variability in the power achieved for a given sample size. We demonstrate that an RCT could almost double its measured event rate by using all-location 90-day mortality versus in-hospital mortality. All-location mortality may be particularly important for sepsis trials given the high rate of ongoing mortality in patients surviving hospitalization—late deaths not explained by patients’ preexisting health status, but rather the lasting effects of sepsis [9, 11].
There are potential budget implications of variable event rates on RCT planning. Recent data have demonstrated rapidly increasing RCT costs, with patient recruitment being a primary factor . Efficient allocation of resources requires balancing multiple variables, including both patient recruitment and retention, required sample size, appropriate primary outcome, and reliable event rate measurement. The complexity of these issues could be somewhat mitigated by precise, quantitative information [18–20]. Pilot data on outcome event rates would provide this information.
The results of this study have implications for the trial design process at large, though more from a methodological perspective. Previous critical care RCTs demonstrate different degrees of event rate variation across outcome definitions. This makes better characterization of this variation a priori important for power calculations. For example, the CHEST trial noted an ICU mortality of 10.9%, an in-hospital mortality of 14.2%, and an overall mortality of 17.4% at 90 days . However, the CATS trial found almost identical rates of mortality at 90 days for in-hospital vs overall: 50.3% vs 51.2% . These differences are likely not just a product of case-mix variation, but also related to context-specific factors, such as alternative care pathways and variable healthcare system structures. Therefore, translating event rate measurements between patient populations and contexts will lead to imprecise estimates. This makes context-specific pilot work in the anticipated sample of an upcoming trial of value to ensure optimal accuracy of sample size calculations.
There are limitations to this study. First, there are factors that impact power calculations which were not accounted for in our study, such as loss to follow-up. This would necessitate an upsizing of the required sample for all-location compared to in-hospital mortality. Second, it is unclear whether a therapy for sepsis patients will have efficacy out to 90 days post intervention. However, the increased post-discharge mortality for sepsis patients makes it logical that an effective sepsis therapy could impact both short-term and long-term outcomes . Finally, there are limitations to administrative claims as a source for identifying hospitalized patients with sepsis, including misclassification of patients. In this study, we used the method of Angus et al., which has been shown to identify a sample of predominantly patients with severe sepsis, with some limitations [23, 24].
Sample size calculations are an integral component of RCT design. It has been theoretically understood that these calculations are impacted by the varying event rates of different outcomes. However, the precise magnitude of this impact has not been described in clinically relevant populations. Our study empirically demonstrates substantial differences in required sample sizes by simply varying the location where death was defined. This suggests that the potential implications may warrant careful pilot work during RCT design. These differences between outcomes have practical implications for trialists with respect to budgeting, resource allocation, and logistical planning of RCTs.
This work was supported by US National Institutes of Health K08 GM115859 (HCP) and VA HSR&D 13-079 (TJI). The views expressed here are the authors’ own and do not necessarily represent the view of the US Government or the Department of Veterans Affairs.
Availability of data and materials
All data are available upon from the corresponding author on reasonable request after completion of a data sharing agreement with the Department of Veterans Affairs.
SG carried out manuscript writing and editing, data analysis, data interpretation, and manuscript approval. HCP carried out database management, data interpretation, manuscript editing, and manuscript approval. VC carried out data interpretation, manuscript editing, and manuscript approval. TJI carried out data interpretation, manuscript editing, and manuscript approval.
Ethics approval and consent to participate
The research was approved by the Ann Arbor VA Institutional Review Board.
Consent for publication
The authors declare that they have no competing interests.
Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.
Open AccessThis article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver (http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/) applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated.
- Allison M. Reinventing clinical trials. Nat Biotechnol. 2012;30(1):41–9.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Ospina-Tascon GA, Buchele GL, Vincent JL. Multicenter, randomized, controlled trials evaluating mortality in intensive care: doomed to fail? Crit Care Med. 2008;36(4):1311–22.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Schulz KF, Grimes DA. Sample size slippages in randomised trials: exclusions and the lost and wayward. Lancet. 2002;359(9308):781–5.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Harhay MO, Wagner J, Ratcliffe SJ, Bronheim RS, Gopal A, Green S, et al. Outcomes and statistical power in adult critical care randomized trials. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2014;189(12):1469–78.View ArticlePubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
- Perner A, Haase N, Guttormsen AB, Tenhunen J, Klemenzson G, Aneman A, et al. Hydroxyethyl starch 130/0.42 versus Ringer’s acetate in severe sepsis. N Engl J Med. 2012;367(2):124–34.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome Network. Ventilation with lower tidal volumes as compared with traditional tidal volumes for acute lung injury and the acute respiratory distress syndrome. N Engl J Med. 2000;342(18):1301–8.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Kaukonen KM, Bailey M, Suzuki S, Pilcher D, Bellomo R. Mortality related to severe sepsis and septic shock among critically ill patients in Australia and New Zealand, 2000-2012. JAMA. 2014;311(13):1308–16.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Altman DG. Statistics and ethics in medical research: III How large a sample? Br Med J. 1980;281(6251):1336–8.View ArticlePubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
- Prescott HC, Osterholzer JJ, Langa KM, Angus DC, Iwashyna TJ. Late mortality after sepsis: propensity matched cohort study. BMJ. 2016;353:i2375.View ArticlePubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
- Angus DC, Linde-Zwirble WT, Lidicker J, Clermont G, Carcillo J, Pinsky MR. Epidemiology of severe sepsis in the United States: analysis of incidence, outcome, and associated costs of care. Crit Care Med. 2001;29(7):1303–10.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Prescott HC, Langa KM, Liu V, Escobar GJ, Iwashyna TJ. Increased 1-year healthcare use in survivors of severe sepsis. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2014;190(1):62–9.View ArticlePubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
- Prescott HC, Kepreos KM, Wiitala WL, Iwashyna TJ. Temporal changes in the influence of hospitals and regional healthcare networks on severe sepsis mortality. Crit Care Med. 2015;43(7):1368–74.View ArticlePubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
- DeMerle KM, Vincent BM, Iwashyna TJ, Prescott HC. Increased healthcare facility use in veterans surviving sepsis hospitalization. J Crit Care. 2017;42:59–64.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Iwashyna T. On the detection of nursing home use in Medicare claims. Health Serv Outcome Res Methodol. 2003;4(3):187–96.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Schmid CH, Lau J, McIntosh MW, Cappelleri JC. An empirical study of the effect of the control rate as a predictor of treatment efficacy in meta-analysis of clinical trials. Stat Med. 1998;17(17):1923–42.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Furukawa TA, Guyatt GH, Griffith LE. Can we individualize the ‘number needed to treat’? An empirical study of summary effect measures in meta-analyses. Int J Epidemiol. 2002;31(1):72–6.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Nightingale F. Looking back. Taken from “Notes on Hospitals” by Florence Nightingale, 1863. Lamp. 1979;36(8):39–43.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Sjoding MW, Cooke CR, Iwashyna TJ, Hofer TP. Acute respiratory distress syndrome measurement error. Potential effect on clinical study results. Ann Am Thorac Soc. 2016;13(7):1123–8.View ArticlePubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
- Angus DC, Mira JP, Vincent JL. Improving clinical trials in the critically ill. Crit Care Med. 2010;38(2):527–32.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Annane D. Improving clinical trials in the critically ill: unique challenge--sepsis. Crit Care Med. 2009;37(1 Suppl):S117–28.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Myburgh JA, Finfer S, Bellomo R, Billot L, Cass A, Gattas D, et al. Hydroxyethyl starch or saline for fluid resuscitation in intensive care. N Engl J Med. 2012;367(20):1901–11.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Annane D, Vignon P, Renault A, Bollaert PE, Charpentier C, Martin C, et al. Norepinephrine plus dobutamine versus epinephrine alone for management of septic shock: a randomised trial. Lancet. 2007;370(9588):676–84.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Iwashyna TJ, Odden A, Rohde J, Bonham C, Kuhn L, Malani P, et al. Identifying patients with severe sepsis using administrative claims: patient-level validation of the Angus implementation of the international consensus conference definition of severe sepsis. Med Care. 2014;52(6):e39–43.View ArticlePubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
- Prescott HC. Variation in postsepsis readmission patterns: a cohort study of Veterans Affairs beneficiaries. Ann Am Thorac Soc. 2017;14(2):230–7.PubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar