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  1. Content type: Study protocol

    Postoperative delirium may manifest in the immediate post-anaesthesia care period. Such episodes appear to be predictive of further episodes of inpatient delirium and associated adverse outcomes. Frontal elect...

    Authors: Amy Gaskell, Rebecca Pullon, Darren Hight, Jonathan Termaat, Gay Mans, Logan Voss, Matthias Kreuzer, Sebastian Schmid, Stephan Kratzer, Amy Rodriguez, Gerhard Schneider, Paul Garcia and Jamie Sleigh

    Citation: Trials 2019 20:146

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  2. Content type: Study protocol

    The prevalence of methamphetamine use disorder (MUD) in the United States has risen dramatically in the past four decades and is concentrated in populations such as men who have sex with men (MSM). Despite the...

    Authors: Christopher S. Stauffer, Jenna M. Moschetto, Scott M. McKernan, Elaine Hsiang, Brian Borsari and Joshua D. Woolley

    Citation: Trials 2019 20:145

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  3. Content type: Study protocol

    Sexual dysfunction can have a negative impact on women’s quality of life and relationships. There is limited information about female sexual function and treatment, particularly during pregnancy and the postpa...

    Authors: Sahar Sadat Sobhgol, Holly Priddis, Caroline A. Smith and Hannah Grace Dahlen

    Citation: Trials 2019 20:144

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  4. Content type: Study protocol

    Subclinical hypothyroidism is a common condition in patients with heart failure and is defined as elevated serum thyroid hormone (TSH) with normal circulating free thyroxine (FT4). Evidence on the effect of th...

    Authors: Xuan Zhang, Wen-yao Wang, Kuo Zhang, Jian Tian, Ji-lin Zheng, Jing Chen, Shi-min An, Si-yuan Wang, Yu-peng Liu, Yan Zhao, Jing-jia Wang, Min Yang and Yi-da Tang

    Citation: Trials 2019 20:143

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  5. Content type: Study protocol

    Transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP) and Greenlight laser vaporisation (GL) of the prostate are frequently performed urological procedures. For TURP, a single-dose antimicrobial prophylaxis (AP) is r...

    Authors: Benjamin Speich, Kathrin Bausch, Jan A. Roth, Lars G. Hemkens, Hannah Ewald, Deborah R. Vogt, Nicole Bruni, Stefanie Deuster, Hans-H. Seifert and Andreas F. Widmer

    Citation: Trials 2019 20:142

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  6. Content type: Commentary

    Randomised controlled trials are considered the best method for determining the effectiveness and safety of health interventions. Trials involving children are essential to ensure that treatments are safe and ...

    Authors: Jacqueline Martin-Kerry, Adwoa Parker, Peter Bower, Ian Watt, Shaun Treweek, David Torgerson, Catherine Arundel and Peter Knapp

    Citation: Trials 2019 20:141

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  7. Content type: Study protocol

    Degenerative knee osteoarthritis is a leading cause of disability in the elderly. If patients do not respond to pharmacological or nonpharmacological intervention, total knee replacement surgery is recommended...

    Authors: Jae-Uk Sul, Myung Kwan Kim, Jungtae Leem, Hee-Geun Jo, Sang-hoon Yoon, Jeeyong Kim, Eun-Jung Lee, Jeong-Eun Yoo, So Jung Park, Young Il Kim, Eunseok Kim, In Chul Jung, Ju-Hyun Jeon and Yang-Chun Park

    Citation: Trials 2019 20:140

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  8. Content type: Study protocol

    The need for cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) is often unexpected, and the infrequent use of CPR in the delivery room (DR) limits the opportunity to perform rigorous clinical studies to determine the best m...

    Authors: Georg M. Schmölzer, Gerhard Pichler, Anne Lee Solevåg, Caroline Fray, Sylvia van Os and Po-Yin Cheung

    Citation: Trials 2019 20:139

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  9. Content type: Research

    New evidence supports the use of supplemental vitamin D in the prevention of exacerbation of asthma; however, the optimal posology to sufficiently raise serum levels while maximising adherence is unclear. The ...

    Authors: Francine Monique Ducharme, Megan Jensen, Geneviève Mailhot, Nathalie Alos, John White, Elizabeth Rousseau, Sze Man Tse, Ali Khamessan and Benjamin Vinet

    Citation: Trials 2019 20:138

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  10. Content type: Study protocol

    Injury is one of the most prevalent potentially emotionally traumatic events that children experience and can lead to persistent impaired physical and emotional health. There is a need for interventions that p...

    Authors: Meghan L. Marsac, Ginny Sprang, Leila Guller, Kristen L. Kohser, John M. Draus Jr and Nancy Kassam-Adams

    Citation: Trials 2019 20:137

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  11. Content type: Study protocol

    Acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (AECOPD) is the leading cause of mortality in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) has been widely used i...

    Authors: Sheling Xie, Peng Yan, Chen Yao, Xiaoyan Yan, Yuliang Huo, Junhua Zhang, Si Liu, Zhiqiao Feng, Hongcai Shang and Lixin Xie

    Citation: Trials 2019 20:136

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  12. Content type: Study protocol

    Knee osteoarthritis (OA) is characterized by chronic pain, physical dysfunction, and reduced quality of life. Low-load resistance exercises with blood flow restriction (BFR) have presented results similar to t...

    Authors: Mikhail Santos Cerqueira and Wouber Hérickson de Brito Vieira

    Citation: Trials 2019 20:135

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  13. Content type: Study protocol

    Restless legs syndrome (RLS) is a common and burdensome sleep disorder associated with profound impairment of health, well-being, and quality of life. Unfortunately, the medications used for RLS management car...

    Authors: Terry Kit Selfe, Sijin Wen, Karen Sherman, Maryanna Klatt and Kim E. Innes

    Citation: Trials 2019 20:134

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  14. Content type: Study protocol

    Urinary catheter placement is essential before laparoscopic anterior resection for rectal cancer. Whether early removal of the catheter increases the incidence of urinary retention and urinary tract infection ...

    Authors: Lai Xu, Zhi-Yan Tao, Jun-Yang Lu, Guan-Nan Zhang, Hui-Zhong Qiu, Bin Wu, Guo-Le Lin, Tao Xu and Yi Xiao

    Citation: Trials 2019 20:133

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  15. Content type: Study protocol

    More than 60,000 people have health problems due to chemical weapons exposure during the Iran–Iraq war. Respiratory consequences of mustard gas exposure are common and disabling; medical interventions have lim...

    Authors: Mohamad Reza Sedighi Moghadam, Mostafa Ghanei, Klaus Kenn and Nicholas S. Hopkinson

    Citation: Trials 2019 20:132

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  16. Content type: Research

    Discrepancies between pre-specified and reported outcomes are an important and prevalent source of bias in clinical trials. COMPare (Centre for Evidence-Based Medicine Outcome Monitoring Project) monitored all...

    Authors: Ben Goldacre, Henry Drysdale, Cicely Marston, Kamal R. Mahtani, Aaron Dale, Ioan Milosevic, Eirion Slade, Philip Hartley and Carl Heneghan

    Citation: Trials 2019 20:124

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  17. Content type: Research

    Discrepancies between pre-specified and reported outcomes are an important source of bias in trials. Despite legislation, guidelines and public commitments on correct reporting from journals, outcome misreport...

    Authors: Ben Goldacre, Henry Drysdale, Aaron Dale, Ioan Milosevic, Eirion Slade, Philip Hartley, Cicely Marston, Anna Powell-Smith, Carl Heneghan and Kamal R. Mahtani

    Citation: Trials 2019 20:118

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  18. Content type: Research

    There are enormous problems in recruiting depressed people into randomised controlled trials (RCTs), with numerous studies consistently failing to recruit to target (Sully et al., Trials 14:166, 2013). Given t...

    Authors: June S. L. Brown, Caroline Murphy, Joanna Kelly and Kimberley Goldsmith

    Citation: Trials 2019 20:131

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  19. Content type: Study protocol

    Although negative pressure wound therapy (NPWT) is widely used in the management of several wound types, its efficacy as a primary therapy for acute burns has not yet been adequately investigated, with researc...

    Authors: Cody C. Frear, Bronwyn Griffin, Leila Cuttle, Steven M. McPhail and Roy Kimble

    Citation: Trials 2019 20:130

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  20. Content type: Study protocol

    The clinical efficacy of effect-site targeted patient-maintained propofol sedation (PMPS) compared to anaesthetist-controlled propofol sedation (ACPS) for patients undergoing awake joint replacement surgery is...

    Authors: David W. Hewson, Frank Worcester, James Sprinks, Murray D. Smith, Heather Buchanan, Philip Breedon, Jonathan G. Hardman and Nigel M. Bedforth

    Citation: Trials 2019 20:129

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  21. Content type: Study protocol

    Binge-eating disorder (BED) is characterized by recurrent episodes of loss of control over eating and is related to a higher prevalence of other mental disorders and somatic consequences associated with overwe...

    Authors: Simone Munsch, Andrea Wyssen, Pierre Vanhulst, Denis Lalanne, Sharon T. Steinemann and Alexandre Tuch

    Citation: Trials 2019 20:128

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  22. Content type: Study protocol

    Ascites is one of the most common complications of cirrhosis. Umbilical therapy with traditional Chinese medicines has been increasingly prescribed to treat cirrhotic ascites. However, high-quality evidence fr...

    Authors: Xianzhao Yang, Shuying Ru, Lin Luo, Xiaoying Lv, Wenjing Bai, Fuwen Zhang and Feng Jiang

    Citation: Trials 2019 20:127

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  23. Content type: Study protocol

    Acupuncture is safe and effective for reducing the symptoms of knee osteoarthritis (KOA), but the underlying mechanisms of acupuncture for treating KOA are not fully understood.

    Authors: Jing Guo, Yang Chen, Zhengjie Li, Shirui Cheng, Chenjian Tang, Xiaohui Dong, Wenhua He, Yong Huang, Bao Yin, Yu Sheng, Jun Zhou, Aijia Li, Fang Zeng, Lei Lan and Fanrong Liang

    Citation: Trials 2019 20:126

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  24. Content type: Study protocol

    Tranexamic acid (TXA) has been routinely delivered in multisegmental spinal decompression and bone graft fusion surgeries with satisfactory outcomes in minimizing gross blood loss and transfusion demands. Howe...

    Authors: Shangyi Hui, Liyuan Tao, Feroze Mahmood, Derong Xu, Zhinan Ren, Xin Chen, Lin Sheng, Qianyu Zhuang, Shugang Li and Yuguang Huang

    Citation: Trials 2019 20:125

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  25. Content type: Study protocol

    In the UK, macular laser is the treatment of choice for people with diabetic macular oedema with central retinal subfield thickness (CST) < 400 μm, as per National Institute for Health and Care Excellence guid...

    Authors: Noemi Lois, Evie Gardner, Norman Waugh, Augusto Azuara-Blanco, Hema Mistry, Danny McAuley, Nachiketa Acharya, Tariq M. Aslam, Clare Bailey, Victor Chong, Louise Downey, Haralabos Eleftheriadis, Samia Fatum, Sheena George, Faruque Ghanchi, Markus Groppe…

    Citation: Trials 2019 20:122

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  26. Content type: Study protocol

    Despite evidence from clinical trials that intravenous (IV) thrombolysis is a cost-effective treatment for selected acute ischaemic stroke patients, there remain large variations in the rate of IV thrombolysis...

    Authors: Christopher I. Price, Lisa Shaw, Peter Dodd, Catherine Exley, Darren Flynn, Richard Francis, Saiful Islam, Mehdi Javanbakht, Rachel Lakey, Joanne Lally, Graham McClelland, Peter McMeekin, Helen Rodgers, Helen Snooks, Louise Sutcliffe, Pippa Tyrell…

    Citation: Trials 2019 20:121

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  27. Content type: Study protocol

    The discovery that voltage-gated calcium channel genes such as CACNA1C are part of the aetiology of psychiatric disorders has rekindled interest in the therapeutic potential of L-type calcium channel (LTCC) antag...

    Authors: Lauren Z. Atkinson, Lucy Colbourne, Alexander Smith, Catherine H. Harmer, Anna C. Nobre, Jennifer Rendell, Helen Jones, Christopher Hinds, Arne Mould, Elizabeth M. Tunbridge, Andrea Cipriani, John R. Geddes, Kate E. A. Saunders and Paul J. Harrison

    Citation: Trials 2019 20:120

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  28. Content type: Research

    Historically, patient and public involvement (PPI) in the design and conduct of surgical trials has been absent or minimal, but it is now routinely recommended and even required by some research funders. We ai...

    Authors: Joanna C. Crocker, Keira Pratt-Boyden, Jenny Hislop, Sian Rees, Louise Locock, Sophie Olszowski, Alan Chant, Shaun Treweek, Jonathan A. Cook, Kerry Woolfall, Nicola Farrar, Jennifer Bostock and Richard Bulbulia

    Citation: Trials 2019 20:119

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  29. Content type: Study protocol

    Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is known as a transitional status between normal cognitive function and Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Acupuncture and Chinese herbal medicines (CHMs) are considered to be beneficial...

    Authors: Yueqi Chen, Wenjing Zhang, Huangan Wu, Lixing Lao, Jian Xu and Shifen Xu

    Citation: Trials 2019 20:117

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  30. Content type: Research

    Several hundred core outcome set (COS) projects have been systematically identified to date which, if adopted, ensure that researchers measure and report those outcomes that are most likely to be relevant to u...

    Authors: Jamie J. Kirkham, Sarah Gorst, Douglas G. Altman, Jane M. Blazeby, Mike Clarke, Sean Tunis and Paula R. Williamson

    Citation: Trials 2019 20:116

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  31. Content type: Study protocol

    Catheter-related bacteremia (CRB) is the most frequent nosocomial infection in neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) patients, especially in very low-birth-weight infants. Administration of injectable drugs in p...

    Authors: Aurélie Maiguy-Foinard, Bertrand Décaudin, Pierre Tourneux, Bernard Guillois, Thierry Blanc, Sophie Galène-Gromez, Morgane Masse, Pascal Odou, Fannette Denies, Benoît Dervaux, Alain Duhamel and Laurent Storme

    Citation: Trials 2019 20:115

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  32. Content type: Study protocol

    Cognitive impairment and cerebrovascular pathology are both frequent with ageing. Cognitive impairment due to vascular pathology of the brain, termed vascular cognitive impairment (VCI), is one of the most fre...

    Authors: Ana Verdelho, Sofia Madureira, Manuel Correia, José Manuel Ferro, Mário Rodrigues, Manuel Gonçalves-Pereira, Mafalda Gonçalves, Ana Catarina Santos, Pedro Vilela, Helena Bárrios, Mariana Borges and Helena Santa-Clara

    Citation: Trials 2019 20:114

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  33. Content type: Study protocol

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a common lifelong condition affecting 1 in 100 people. ASD affects how a person relates to others and the world around them. Difficulty responding to sensory information (nois...

    Authors: Elizabeth Randell, Rachel McNamara, Sue Delport, Monica Busse, Richard P. Hastings, David Gillespie, Rhys Williams-Thomas, Lucy Brookes-Howell, Renee Romeo, Janet Boadu, Alka S. Ahuja, Anne Marie McKigney, Martin Knapp, Kathryn Smith, Jacqui Thornton and Gemma Warren

    Citation: Trials 2019 20:113

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  34. Content type: Study protocol

    Children born to parents with a severe mental illness, like schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, or major recurrent depression, have an increased risk of developing a mental illness themselves during life. These c...

    Authors: Anne D. Müller, Ida C. T. Gjøde, Mette S. Eigil, Helle Busck, Merete Bonne, Merete Nordentoft and Anne A. E. Thorup

    Citation: Trials 2019 20:112

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  35. Content type: Research

    Context matters for the successful implementation of medical interventions, but its role remains surprisingly understudied. Against the backdrop of antimicrobial resistance, a global health priority, we invest...

    Authors: Marco J. Haenssgen, Nutcha Charoenboon, Nga T. T. Do, Thomas Althaus, Yuzana Khine Zaw, Heiman F. L. Wertheim and Yoel Lubell

    Citation: Trials 2019 20:111

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  36. Content type: Study protocol

    Preoperative anxiety and postoperative delirium affect both short- and long-term prognoses in patients with cancer; therefore, these conditions require early prevention and treatment. However, no standard prev...

    Authors: Saho Wada, Ryoichi Sadahiro, Yutaka J. Matsuoka, Yosuke Uchitomi, Takuhiro Yamaguchi and Ken Shimizu

    Citation: Trials 2019 20:110

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  37. Content type: Study protocol

    The prevalence of hypertension among people with chronic kidney disease is high with over 60% of people not attaining recommended targets despite taking multiple medications. Given the health and economic impl...

    Authors: Stephanie Thompson, Natasha Wiebe, Gabor Gyenes, Rachelle Davies, Jeyasundar Radhakrishnan and Michelle Graham

    Citation: Trials 2019 20:109

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  38. Content type: Methodology

    The research study titled “Cluster randomised trial of the clinical and cost effectiveness of the i-gel supraglottic airway device versus tracheal intubation in the initial airway management of out-of-hospital...

    Authors: Maria J. Robinson, Jodi Taylor, Stephen J. Brett, Jerry P. Nolan, Matthew Thomas, Barnaby C. Reeves, Chris A. Rogers, Sarah Voss, Madeleine Clout and Jonathan R. Benger

    Citation: Trials 2019 20:108

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  39. Content type: Research

    Inter-observer variability in stroke aetiological classification may have an effect on trial power and estimation of treatment effect. We modelled the effect of misclassification on required sample size in a h...

    Authors: Azmil H. Abdul-Rahim, David Alexander Dickie, Johann R. Selvarajah, Kennedy R. Lees and Terence J. Quinn

    Citation: Trials 2019 20:107

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  40. Content type: Study protocol

    Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are the second most common infection presenting in the community. Clinical guidelines and decision aids assist health practitioners to treat a UTI; however, treatment practices ...

    Authors: Sinead Duane, Akke Vellinga, Andrew W. Murphy, Martin Cormican, Andrew Smyth, Patricia Healy, Michael Moore, Paul Little and Declan Devane

    Citation: Trials 2019 20:106

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  41. Content type: Study protocol

    While the majority of seriously ill people wish to die at home, only half achieve this. The likelihood of someone dying at home often depends on the availability of able and willing lay carers to support them.

    Authors: Marlise Poolman, Jessica Roberts, Anthony Byrne, Paul Perkins, Zoe Hoare, Annmarie Nelson, Julia Hiscock, Dyfrig Hughes, Betty Foster, Julie O’Connor, Liz Reymond, Sue Healy, Rossela Roberts, Bee Wee, Penney Lewis, Rosalynde Johnstone…

    Citation: Trials 2019 20:105

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  42. Content type: Study protocol

    There is compelling evidence of beneficial effects of non-immersive virtual reality (VR)-based intervention in the rehabilitation of patients with stroke, whereby patients experience both the real world and th...

    Authors: Qianqian Huang, Wei Wu, Xiaolong Chen, Bo Wu, Longqiang Wu, Xiaoli Huang, Songhe Jiang and Lejian Huang

    Citation: Trials 2019 20:104

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  43. Content type: Study protocol

    The overuse of antibiotics is a major cause for the worldwide rise of antibiotic resistance. Although it is well known that acute respiratory tract infections (ARTI) are mainly caused by viruses and are often ...

    Authors: Anja Wollny, Attila Altiner, Tonia Brand, Katharina Garbe, Martina Kamradt, Petra Kaufmann-Kolle, Mirko Leyh, Regina Poß-Doering, Joachim Szecsenyi, Lorenz Uhlmann, Arwed Voss, Dorothea Weber, Michel Wensing and Christin Löffler

    Citation: Trials 2019 20:103

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  44. Content type: Study protocol

    Dating applications are a popular platform to meet new people. At the same time, they have been associated with risks such as unsafe sexual behavior and privacy concerns in young adults. This paper presents a ...

    Authors: Stephanie Tsz Hei Lau, Kitty Wai Ying Choi, Julie Chen, William Pak-hing Mak, Ho Kong Christopher Au Yeung, Joseph Tucker and William Chi-Wai Wong

    Citation: Trials 2019 20:102

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  45. Content type: Study protocol

    Perioperative anaemia leads to impaired oxygen supply with a risk of vital organ ischaemia. In healthy and fit individuals, anaemia can be compensated by several mechanisms. Elderly patients, however, have les...

    Authors: Patrick Meybohm, Simone Lindau, Sascha Treskatsch, Roland Francis, Claudia Spies, Markus Velten, Maria Wittmann, Erdem Gueresir, Christian Stoppe, Ana Kowark, Mark Coburn, Sixten Selleng, Marcel Baschin, Gregor Jenichen, Melanie Meersch, Thomas Ermert…

    Citation: Trials 2019 20:101

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  46. Content type: Study protocol

    Melanoma has become a growing interdisciplinary problem in public health worldwide. According to the World Health Organization, the incidence of melanoma is increasing faster than any other cancer in the world...

    Authors: Ingo Stoffels, Ken Herrmann, Jan Rekowski, Philipp Jansen, Dirk Schadendorf, Andreas Stang and Joachim Klode

    Citation: Trials 2019 20:99

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  47. Content type: Research

    The present randomized controlled trial (RCT) evaluated the effectiveness of a theory-based physical activity (PA) intervention for rural patients with prediabetes. It was hypothesized that a PA intervention p...

    Authors: Tahereh Shamizadeh, Leila Jahangiry, Parvin Sarbakhsh and Koen Ponnet

    Citation: Trials 2019 20:98

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  48. Content type: Study protocol

    Oral mucositis (OM) is the most frequent and debilitating acute side effect associated with head and neck cancer (HNC) treatment. When present, severe OM negatively impacts the quality of life of patients unde...

    Authors: Allisson Filipe Lopes Martins, Túlio Eduardo Nogueira, Marília Oliveira Morais, Angélica Ferreira Oton-Leite, Marize Campos Valadares, Aline Carvalho Batista, Nilceana Maya Aires Freitas, Cláudio Rodrigues Leles and Elismauro Francisco Mendonça

    Citation: Trials 2019 20:97

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