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  1. Pneumonia is the primary cause of death among HIV-infected children in Africa, with mortality rates as high as 35–40% in infants hospitalized with severe pneumonia. Bacterial pathogens and Pneumocystis jirovecii ...

    Authors: Pablo Rojo, Cinta Moraleda, Alfredo Tagarro, Sara Domínguez-Rodríguez, Lola Madrid Castillo, Luis Manuel Prieto Tato, Aranzazu Sancho López, Lilit Manukyan, Olivier Marcy, Valeriane Leroy, Alessandra Nardone, David Burger, Quique Bassat, Matthew Bates, Raoul Moh, Pui-Ying Iroh Tam…
    Citation: Trials 2022 23:531
  2. Malignant pleural effusions (MPEs) are common. MPE causes significant breathlessness and impairs quality of life. Indwelling pleural catheters (IPC) allow ambulatory drainage and reduce hospital days and re-in...

    Authors: Deirdre B. Fitzgerald, Calvin Sidhu, Charley Budgeon, Ai Ling Tan, Catherine A. Read, Benjamin C. H. Kwan, Nicola Ann Smith, Edward T. Fysh, Sanjeevan Muruganandan, Tajalli Saghaie, Ranjan Shrestha, Arash Badiei, Phan Nguyen, Andrew Burke, John Goddard, Morgan Windsor…
    Citation: Trials 2022 23:530
  3. Inequality in health can have profound effects on a child’s opportunities later in life. To prevent these downstream effects in families at increased risk of adversity, programs are needed to provide support a...

    Authors: Maiken Pontoppidan, Mette Thorsager, Mette Friis-Hansen, Arietta Slade and Lois S. Sadler
    Citation: Trials 2022 23:529
  4. Valvular heart diseases are frequent and increasing in prevalence. Minimally invasive heart valve surgery embedded in an interdisciplinary enhanced recovery after surgery (ERAS) program may have potential bene...

    Authors: Susanne G. R. Klotz, Gesche Ketels, Christian A. Behrendt, Hans-Helmut König, Sebastian Kohlmann, Bernd Löwe, Johannes Petersen, Sina Stock, Eik Vettorazzi, Antonia Zapf, Inke Zastrow, Christian Zöllner, Hermann Reichenspurner and Evaldas Girdauskas
    Citation: Trials 2022 23:528
  5. The 2019 novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic has highlighted the importance of health research and fostered clinical research as never before. A huge number of clinical trials for potential COVID-19 ...

    Authors: Maria Puopolo, Cristina Morciano, Maria Buoncervello, Chiara De Nuccio, Rosa Luisa Potenza, Elena Toschi and Lucia Palmisano
    Citation: Trials 2022 23:527
  6. The one anastomosis gastric bypass (OAGB) is being performed by an increasing number of bariatric centers over the world. However, the optimal length of the biliopancreatic (BP) limb remains a topic of discuss...

    Authors: Nienke Slagter, Loek J. M. de Heide, Ewoud H. Jutte, Mirjam A. Kaijser, Stefan L. Damen, André P. van Beek and Marloes Emous
    Citation: Trials 2022 23:526
  7. Infertility is a common problem globally and impaired semen quality is responsible for up to 40% of all cases. Almost all infertile couples are treated with either insemination or assisted reproductive techniq...

    Authors: Sam Kafai Yahyavi, Rune Holt, Li Juel Mortensen, Jørgen Holm Petersen, Niels Jørgensen, Anders Juul and Martin Blomberg Jensen
    Citation: Trials 2022 23:525
  8. Cannabis is the most-frequently used illicit drug in Europe. Over the last few years in Spain, treatment demand has increased, yet most cannabis users do not seek treatment despite the related problems. A web-...

    Authors: J. I. Mestre-Pintó, F. Fonseca, M. P. Schaub, C. Baumgartner, M. Alias-Ferri and M. Torrens
    Citation: Trials 2022 23:524
  9. Various priming techniques to enhance neuroplasticity have been examined in stroke rehabilitation research. Most priming techniques are costly and approved only for research. Here, we describe a priming techni...

    Authors: Mary Ellen Stoykov, Olivia M. Biller, Alexandra Wax, Erin King, Jacob M. Schauer, Louis F. Fogg and Daniel M. Corcos
    Citation: Trials 2022 23:523
  10. Treatment of acute myocardial infarction has been the subject of studies over the past years. However, the initial months after myocardial infarction are crucial from the perspective of the patient’s prognosis...

    Authors: Bartosz Krzowski, Michał Peller, Maria Boszko, Paulina Hoffman, Natalia Żurawska, Karolina Jaruga, Kamila Skoczylas, Gabriela Osak, Łukasz Kołtowski, Marcin Grabowski, Grzegorz Opolski and Paweł Balsam
    Citation: Trials 2022 23:522
  11. Many community college students experience poor sexual and relationship health outcomes. Young adults consume a plethora of media content, much of which depicts unhealthy sexual and romantic relationships, and...

    Authors: Tracy M. Scull, Christina V. Dodson, Reina Evans-Paulson, Liz C. Reeder, Jacob Geller, Kathryn N. Stump and Janis B. Kupersmidt
    Citation: Trials 2022 23:521
  12. Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a leading cause of disease morbidity. Combined treatment with antidepressant medication (ADM) plus psychotherapy yields a much higher MDD remission rate than ADM only. But 77...

    Authors: Robert M. Bossarte, Ronald C. Kessler, Andrew A. Nierenberg, Ambarish Chattopadhyay, Pim Cuijpers, Angel Enrique, Phyllis M. Foxworth, Sarah M. Gildea, Bea Herbeck Belnap, Marc W. Haut, Kari B. Law, William D. Lewis, Howard Liu, Alexander R. Luedtke, Wilfred R. Pigeon, Larry A. Rhodes…
    Citation: Trials 2022 23:520
  13. Traditional rural housing in hot, humid regions of sub-Saharan Africa usually consists of single-level, poorly ventilated dwellings. Houses are mostly poorly screened against malaria mosquitoes and limited air...

    Authors: Salum Mshamu, Arnold Mmbando, Judith Meta, John Bradley, Thomas Chevalier Bøjstrup, Nicholas P. J. Day, Mavuto Mukaka, Fredros Okumu, Ally Olotu, Christopher Pell, Jacqueline Deen, Jakob Knudsen, Steven W. Lindsay and Lorenz von Seidlein
    Citation: Trials 2022 23:519

    The Correction to this article has been published in Trials 2022 23:550

  14. There is a pressing need for scalable healthcare solutions and a shift in the rehabilitation paradigm from hospitals to homes to tackle the increase in stroke incidence while reducing the practical and economi...

    Authors: Anna Mura, Martina Maier, Belén Rubio Ballester, Javier De la Torre Costa, Judit López-Luque, Axelle Gelineau, Stephane Mandigout, Per Hamid Ghatan, Raffaele Fiorillo, Fabrizio Antenucci, Ton Coolen, Iñigo Chivite, Antonio Callen, Hugo Landais, Olga Irina Gómez, Cristina Melero…
    Citation: Trials 2022 23:518
  15. Hyperuricemia increases the risk of gout and cardiovascular complications, and how to manage asymptomatic hyperuricemia is controversial. Randomized controlled trials and comparative studies are needed to guid...

    Authors: Jingyao Yan, Yingyan Zhou, Qiaowen Yang, Jiaqi Wu and Xiaohong He
    Citation: Trials 2022 23:517
  16. Multimodal analgesia that provides optimal pain treatment with minimal side effects is important for optimal recovery after open cardiac surgery. Regional anaesthesia can be used to block noxious nerve signals...

    Authors: Mark Larsson, Ulrik Sartipy, Anders Franco-Cereceda, Anders Öwall and Jan Jakobsson
    Citation: Trials 2022 23:516
  17. Existing therapeutic interventions to treat diabetes are well known, yet the majority of people with diabetes do not consistently achieve blood glucose targets (even individual therapy targets) for optimal hea...

    Authors: Ryan Charles Kelly, Peter Phiri, Hermione Price, Amar Ali, Irene Stratton, Kayleigh Austin, Alice Neave and Katharine Barnard-Kelly
    Citation: Trials 2022 23:515
  18. Young men who have sex with men (YMSM) are disproportionately impacted by the HIV epidemic in the USA, and a large number of new infections among YMSM occur in the context of main or primary partnerships. At t...

    Authors: Michael E. Newcomb, Elissa L. Sarno, Emily Bettin, Adam Conway, James Carey, Christopher Garcia, Ricky Hill, Kyle Jozsa, Gregory Swann, Elizabeth L. Addington, Jody D. Ciolino, Kathryn Macapagal, Judith T. Moskowitz, Brian Mustanski and Sarah W. Whitton
    Citation: Trials 2022 23:514
  19. Risks to mother and fetus following Ebola virus infection are very high. Evaluation of safety and immunogenicity of non-replicating Ebola vaccine candidates is a priority for use in pregnant women. This is the...

    Authors: Etienne Karita, Julien Nyombayire, Rosine Ingabire, Amelia Mazzei, Tyronza Sharkey, Jeannine Mukamuyango, Susan Allen, Amanda Tichacek, Rachel Parker, Frances Priddy, Felix Sayinzoga, Sabin Nsanzimana, Cynthia Robinson, Michael Katwere, Dickson Anumendem, Maarten Leyssen…
    Citation: Trials 2022 23:513
  20. Strong evidence suggests that maternal-infant skin-to-skin contact (SSC) is effective in reducing behavioural responses to pain. Given the multi-sensory benefits of SSC, it is highly likely that SSC provided d...

    Authors: Marsha Campbell-Yeo, Britney Benoit, Aaron Newman, Celeste Johnston, Tim Bardouille, Bonnie Stevens and Arlene Jiang
    Citation: Trials 2022 23:512
  21. Sending a social norms feedback letter to general practitioners who are high prescribers of antibiotics has been shown to reduce antibiotic prescribing. The 2017-9 Quality Premium for primary care in England s...

    Authors: Natalie Gold, Anna Sallis, Ayoub Saei, Rohan Arambepola, Robin Watson, Sarah Bowen, Matija Franklin and Tim Chadborn
    Citation: Trials 2022 23:511
  22. Endometrial fibrosis caused by intrauterine adhesion (IUA) can lead to hypomenorrhea, amenorrhea, and even infertility and abortion. The postoperative recurrence rate of severe IUA remains high, giving rise to...

    Authors: Wen-Juan Pang, Qing Zhang, Hai-Xia Ding, Ning-Xia Sun and Wen Li
    Citation: Trials 2022 23:510
  23. Understanding patient and health practitioner perspectives on clinical trials can inform opportunities to enhance trial conduct and design, and therefore patient experience. Patients with haematological cancer...

    Authors: Frances C. Sherratt, Peter Fisher, Amy Mathieson, Mary G. Cherry, Andrew R. Pettitt and Bridget Young
    Citation: Trials 2022 23:509
  24. The prophylactic administration of tranexamic acid reduces blood loss during procedures at high risk of perioperative bleeding. Several studies in cardiac surgery and orthopedics confirmed this finding. The ai...

    Authors: M. Balik, J. Kosina, P. Husek, J. Pacovsky, M. Brodak and F. Cecka
    Citation: Trials 2022 23:508
  25. Sarcomas are a heterogeneous group of rare malignant tumors of mesenchymal origin in the musculoskeletal system. The main treatment is surgery often supplemented with pre-or postoperative radiotherapy.

    Authors: Müjgan Yilmaz, Andrea Thorn, Michala Skovlund Sørensen, Claus Lindkær Jensen and Michael Mørk Petersen
    Citation: Trials 2022 23:507
  26. Many cancer patients experience high symptom burden. Healthcare in the USA is reactive, not proactive, and doctor-patient communication is often suboptimal. As a result, symptomatic patients may suffer between...

    Authors: Michael J. Hassett, Sandra Wong, Raymond U. Osarogiagbon, Jessica Bian, Don S. Dizon, Hannah Hazard Jenkins, Hajime Uno, Christine Cronin and Deborah Schrag
    Citation: Trials 2022 23:506
  27. Globally, household air pollution (HAP) is a leading environmental cause of morbidity and mortality. Our trial aims to assess the impact of liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) for cooking to reduce household air pol...

    Authors: Camille Raynes-Greenow, Sk Masum Billah, Sajia Islam, S. M. Rokonuzzaman, Fahmida Tofail, Elizabeth K. Kirkwood, Ashraful Alam, Ryan Chartier, Tarana E. Ferdous, Shams El Arifeen, Michael J. Dibley, Nusrat Homaira, Alison Hayes, Jonathan Thornburg and Patrick Kelly
    Citation: Trials 2022 23:505
  28. Mobile health (mHealth) is increasingly advocated for diabetes management. It is unclear if mobile applications are effective in improving glycaemic control, clinical outcomes, quality of life and overall pati...

    Authors: Noor Suleiman, Meis Alkasem, Zaina Al Amer, Obada Salameh, Noora Al-Thani, Mohammad Khair Hamad, Khaled Baagar, Ibrahem Abdalhakam, Manal Othman, Ragae Dughmosh, Dabia Al-Mohanadi, Ali Al Sanousi, Mohammed Bashir, Odette Chagoury, Shahrad Taheri and Abdul-Badi Abou-Samra
    Citation: Trials 2022 23:504
  29. Delivering acute hospital care to patients at home might reduce costs and improve patient experience. Mayo Clinic’s Advanced Care at Home (ACH) program is a novel virtual hybrid model of “Hospital at Home.” Th...

    Authors: Xiaoxi Yao, Margaret Paulson, Michael J. Maniaci, Ajani N. Dunn, Chad R. Nelson, Emma M. Behnken, Melissa S. Hart, Lindsey R. Sangaralingham, Shealeigh A. Inselman, Michelle A. Lampman, Shannon M. Dunlay, Sean C. Dowdy and Elizabeth B. Habermann
    Citation: Trials 2022 23:503
  30. Staphylococcus aureus is a frequent colonizer of the human skin and mucous membranes but can also cause a variety of serious infections. Antimicrobial resistance is an increasing worldwide challenge and is mainl...

    Authors: Mona Katrine Alberthe Holm, Heidi Karin Meiniche, Michael Pedersen, Helle Brander Eriksen, Henrik Westh, Barbara J. Holzknecht and Mette Damkjær Bartels
    Citation: Trials 2022 23:502
  31. Treatment fidelity is inconsistently reported in aphasia research, contributing to uncertainty about the effectiveness of types of aphasia therapy following stroke. We outline the processes and outcomes of tre...

    Authors: Erin Godecke, Emily Brogan, Natalie Ciccone, Miranda L. Rose, Elizabeth Armstrong, Anne Whitworth, Fiona Ellery, Audrey Holland, Sandy Middleton, Tapan Rai, Graeme J. Hankey, Dominique Cadilhac and Julie Bernhardt
    Citation: Trials 2022 23:501
  32. Anorexia nervosa (AN) is a serious and disabling mental disorder with a high disease burden. In a proportion of cases, intensive hospital-based treatments, i.e. inpatient or day patient treatment, are required...

    Authors: Madeleine Irish, Bethan Dalton, Laura Potts, Catherine McCombie, James Shearer, Katie Au, Nikola Kern, Sam Clark-Stone, Frances Connan, A. Louise Johnston, Stanimira Lazarova, Shiona Macdonald, Ciarán Newell, Tayeem Pathan, Jackie Wales, Rebecca Cashmore…
    Citation: Trials 2022 23:500
  33. Hypercalciuria is one of the most frequent metabolic disorders associated with nephrolithiasis and/or nephrocalcinosis possibly leading to chronic kidney disease (CKD) and bone complications in adults. Orphan ...

    Authors: Aurélia Bertholet-Thomas, Aurélie Portefaix, Sacha Flammier, Carole Dhelens, Fabien Subtil, Laurence Dubourg, Valérie Laudy, Myrtille Le Bouar, Inesse Boussaha, Marietou Ndiaye, Arnaud Molin, Sandrine Lemoine and Justine Bacchetta
    Citation: Trials 2022 23:499
  34. Over 2021, COVID-19 vaccination programs worldwide focused on raising population immunity through the primary COVID-19 vaccine series. In Singapore, two mRNA vaccines (BNT162b2 and mRNA-1273) and the inactivat...

    Authors: Xuan Ying Poh, I. Russel Lee, Clarissa Lim, Jefanie Teo, Suma Rao, Po Ying Chia, Sean W. X. Ong, Tau Hong Lee, Ray J. H. Lin, Lisa F. P. Ng, Ee Chee Ren, Raymond T. P. Lin, Lin-Fa Wang, Laurent Renia, David Chien Lye and Barnaby E. Young
    Citation: Trials 2022 23:498
  35. The efficacy of pericardium 6 (P6) acupoint stimulation to reduce the incidence of postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV) has been proven in several randomised controlled clinical trials. However, little is ...

    Authors: Benedict Weber, Selena Knoth, Peter Kranke and Leopold Eberhart
    Citation: Trials 2022 23:497
  36. Dizziness and vertigo affect around 15% of adults annually and represent common reasons for contacting health services, accounting for around 3% of all emergency department visits worldwide. Vertigo is also as...

    Authors: Solmaz Surano, Helena Grip, Fredrik Öhberg, Marcus Karlsson, Erik Faergemann, Maria Bjurman, Hugo Davidsson, Torbjörn Ledin, Ellen Lindell, Jan Mathé, Fredrik Tjernström, Tatjana Tomanovic, Gabriel Granåsen and Jonatan Salzer
    Citation: Trials 2022 23:496
  37. Women in Africa face disproportionate risk of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) acquisition, accounting for more than half of new infections in Africa and similarly face a disproportionate burden of sexually ...

    Authors: Jenell Stewart, Elizabeth Bukusi, Fredericka A. Sesay, Kevin Oware, Deborah Donnell, Olusegun O. Soge, Connie Celum, Josephine Odoyo, Zachary A. Kwena, Caitlin W. Scoville, Lauren R. Violette, Susan Morrison, Jane Simoni, R. Scott McClelland, Ruanne Barnabas, Monica Gandhi…
    Citation: Trials 2022 23:495
  38. Biological disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs (bDMARDs) are effective in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) but are expensive and increase the risk of infection. Therefore, in patients with a stabl...

    Authors: Marianne A. Messelink, Matthijs S. van der Leeuw, Alfons A. den Broeder, Janneke Tekstra, Marlies C. van der Goes, Marloes W. Heijstek, Floris Lafeber and Paco M. J. Welsing
    Citation: Trials 2022 23:494
  39. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are widely used to treat sciatica, despite insufficient evidence from placebo-controlled trials. NSAIDs may cause serious side effects; hence, there is a strong ne...

    Authors: Lars Grøvle, Eivind Hasvik, Rene Holst and Anne Julsrud Haugen
    Citation: Trials 2022 23:493
  40. There is an ongoing discussion about the advantages and disadvantages of different surgical positions (semi-sitting and lateral position) for vestibular schwannoma surgery. Each position has its advantages, di...

    Authors: Xiaolong Wu, Xu Wang, Gang Song, Mingchu Li, Chengbei Hou, Ge Chen, Hongchuan Guo, Xinru Xiao, Jie Tang, Qingtang Lin, Yuhai Bao and Jiantao Liang
    Citation: Trials 2022 23:492
  41. Endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) is widely used as an effective treatment of early gastric and esophageal tumors, as it is minimally invasive, safe, and convenient. Epigastric pain is a common complicati...

    Authors: Xin Luo, Li-Xin An, Pei-Shan Chen, Xin-Lu Chang and Yang Li
    Citation: Trials 2022 23:491
  42. The high prevalence of dysphagia among Alzheimer’s disease (AD) patients has become a public health and economic concern. Therefore, effective and accessible dysphagia treatments are needed. As a fundamental r...

    Authors: Chenxin Wu, Kun Zhang, Junrong Ye, Xingxiao Huang, Hang Yang, Lexin Yuan, Haoyun Wang, Ting Wang, Xiaomei Zhong, Jianxiong Guo, Lin Yu and Aixiang Xiao
    Citation: Trials 2022 23:490
  43. Authors: Isabel Mank, Raissa Sorgho, Fanta Zerbo, Moubassira Kagoné, Boubacar Coulibaly, John Oguso, Michael Mbata, Sammy Khagayi, Erick M. O. Muok, Ali Sié and Ina Danquah
    Citation: Trials 2022 23:489

    The original article was published in Trials 2022 23:449

  44. The placebo effect as the symptom improvement following inert treatments is a fixed component of RCTs to differentiate between specific effects of the tested pharmacological substance from other unspecific eff...

    Authors: Martin Coenen, Ulrike Bingel, Matthias Zunhammer, Maria Soledad Berdaguer, Christine Fuhrmann, Rolf Fimmers, Jens Rengelshausen, Gunther Hartmann, Manfred Schedlowski and Christoph Coch
    Citation: Trials 2022 23:488
  45. Primary progressive aphasia (PPA) is a clinical dementia syndrome. Impairments in language (speaking, reading, writing, and understanding) are the primary and persistent symptoms. These impairments progress in...

    Authors: Angela C. Roberts, Alfred W. Rademaker, Elizabeth Ann Salley, Aimee Mooney, Darby Morhardt, Melanie Fried-Oken, Sandra Weintraub, Marsel Mesulam and Emily Rogalski
    Citation: Trials 2022 23:487
  46. The 4th Industrial Revolution with the advent of the smart era, in which artificial intelligence, such as big data analysis and machine learning, is expected, and the provision of healthcare services using sma...

    Authors: Bora Kim, Jong Youn Moon, Jae Yong Shin, Hae Rin Jeon, So Yeon Oh and Suk Young Kim
    Citation: Trials 2022 23:486
  47. Neurogenic bladder (NGB) is a chronic and disabling condition with a high prevalence rate, which can cause economic burden on patients and their families and reduce the quality of life of patients. Researchers...

    Authors: Yan Zhang, Yamin Chen, Mingming Niu, Yuanyuan Li, Jiaoyan Zhang, Li Zhang, Fangfang Wu, Qingyun Chen, Huijin Yu and Jinhui Tian
    Citation: Trials 2022 23:485
  48. Globally rifampicin-resistant tuberculosis disease affects around 460,000 people each year. Currently recommended regimens are 9–24 months duration, have poor efficacy and carry significant toxicity. A shorter...

    Authors: Catherine Berry, Philipp du Cros, Katherine Fielding, Suzanne Gajewski, Emil Kazounis, Timothy D. McHugh, Corinne Merle, Ilaria Motta, David A. J. Moore and Bern-Thomas Nyang’wa
    Citation: Trials 2022 23:484
  49. Food addiction is one of the behavioral factors that play an important role in the pathogenesis of obesity. Much evidence is available suggesting intestinal microbiomes can play a role in eating behavior, body...

    Authors: Hanieh Irani, Banafsheh Khodami, Behnaz Abiri and Atoosa Saidpour
    Citation: Trials 2022 23:482
  50. Diabetes mellitus (DM) increases the risk of tuberculosis (TB) and will hamper global TB control due to the dramatic rise in type 2 DM in TB-endemic settings. In this trial, we will examine the efficacy and sa...

    Authors: Nyanda Elias Ntinginya, Lindsey te Brake, Issa Sabi, Nyasatu Chamba, Kajiru Kilonzo, Sweetness Laizer, Irene Andia-Biraro, Davis Kibirige, Andrew Peter Kyazze, Sandra Ninsiima, Julia A. Critchley, Renee Romeo, Josephine van de Maat, Willyhelmina Olomi, Lucy Mrema, David Magombola…
    Citation: Trials 2022 23:480

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