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  1. The pain management of postherpetic neuralgia (PHN) remains a major challenge, with no immediate relief. Nitrous oxide/oxygen mixture has the advantages of quick analgesic effect and well-tolerated. The purpos...

    Authors: Hai-Xiang Gao, Jun-Jun Zhang, Ning Liu, Yi Wang, Chun-Xiang Ma, Lu-Lu Gao, Qiang Liu, Ting-Ting Zhang, Yi-Ling Wang, Wen-Qiang Bao and Yu-Xiang Li

    Citation: Trials 2021 22:29

    Content type: Study protocol

    Published on:

  2. The aim of this paper is to share the methodological problems of an unsuccessful prospective single-arm feasibility trial conducted to evaluate the safety and feasibility of a 12-week progressive exercise inte...

    Authors: Jennifer Brunet, Jenson Price and Céline Delluc

    Citation: Trials 2021 22:26

    Content type: Commentary

    Published on:

  3. Globally, methamphetamine use has increased in prevalence in recent years. In Australia, there has been a dramatic increase in numbers of people seeking treatment, including residential rehabilitation, for met...

    Authors: Joshua B. B. Garfield, Hugh Piercy, Shalini Arunogiri, Dan I. Lubman, Samuel C. Campbell, Paul G. Sanfilippo, Jeff Gavin, Malcolm Hopwood, Eli Kotler, Suzanne George, Goke Okedara, Lara R. Piccoli and Victoria Manning

    Citation: Trials 2021 22:21

    Content type: Study protocol

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  4. HIV-related maternal deaths and HIV infection among infants remain unacceptably high across sub-Saharan Africa despite increased antenatal care attendance and provision of antiretroviral therapy to pregnant wo...

    Authors: Zachary Kwena, Liza Kimbo, Lynae A. Darbes, Abigail M. Hatcher, Anna Helova, George Owino, Harsha Thirumurthy, Elizabeth A. Bukusi, Thomas Braun, Meredith Kilgore, Maria Pisu, Ashutosh Tamhane, Van T. Nghiem, Kawango Agot, Torsten B. Neilands and Janet M. Turan

    Citation: Trials 2021 22:19

    Content type: Study protocol

    Published on:

  5. Due to advancements in treatment, the survival of breast cancer (BC) patients has significantly improved. Improving the postoperative quality of life has become a widespread concern for patients and doctors. A...

    Authors: Yu-Wei Shao, Qing Shu, Dan Xu, Hui Teng, Gao-Song Wu, Jin-Xuan Hou and Jun Tian

    Citation: Trials 2021 22:16

    Content type: Study protocol

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  6. Procedural sedation and analgesia (PSA) is frequently required to perform closed reductions for fractures and dislocations in children. Intravenous (IV) ketamine is the most commonly used sedative agent for cl...

    Authors: Anna Heath, Juan David Rios, Eleanor Pullenayegum, Petros Pechlivanoglou, Martin Offringa, Maryna Yaskina, Rick Watts, Shana Rimmer, Terry P. Klassen, Kamary Coriolano and Naveen Poonai

    Citation: Trials 2021 22:15

    Content type: Update

    Published on:

  7. Delirium is defined as acute organic brain dysfunction characterised by inattention and disturbance of cognition. It is common in the intensive care unit and is associated with poorer outcomes. Good quality sl...

    Authors: Bradley Wibrow, F. Eduardo Martinez, Andrew Ford, Erin Kelty, Kevin Murray, Kwok M. Ho, Edward Litton, Erina Myers and Matthew Anstey

    Citation: Trials 2021 22:7

    Content type: Update

    Published on:

    The Study protocol to this article has been published in Trials 2017 18:4

  8. Long-term outcomes of lung transplantation are severely affected by comorbidities and development of chronic rejection. Among the comorbidities, kidney insufficiency is one of the most frequent and it is mainl...

    Authors: Alberto Benazzo, Ara Cho, Anna Nechay, Stefan Schwarz, Florian Frommlet, Thomas Wekerle, Konrad Hoetzenecker and Peter Jaksch

    Citation: Trials 2021 22:6

    Content type: Study protocol

    Published on:

  9. Cleft palate is among the most common birth abnormalities. The success of primary surgery in the early months of life is crucial for successful feeding, hearing, dental development, and facial growth. Over rec...

    Authors: Elizabeth J. Conroy, Rachael Cooper, William Shaw, Christina Persson, Elisabeth Willadsen, Kevin J. Munro, Paula R. Williamson, Gunvor Semb, Tanya Walsh and Carrol Gamble

    Citation: Trials 2021 22:5

    Content type: Update

    Published on:

  10. We will evaluate the efficacy and safety of Ivermectin in patients with mild and moderately severe COVID-19.

    Authors: Fatemeh Sadat Hosseini, Alireza Malektojari, Sara Ghazizadeh, Mehdi Hassaniazad, Parivash Davoodian, Habib Dadvand, Amin Reza Nikpoor, Sara Nikoofal-Sahlabadi, Sara Kahoori, Mojtaba Sepandi, Soheil Hassanipour and Mohammad Fathalipour

    Citation: Trials 2021 22:4

    Content type: Letter

    Published on:

  11. To investigate the efficacy and safety of repurposed antiprotozoal and antiretroviral drugs, nitazoxanide and atazanavir/ritonavir, in shortening the time to clinical improvement and achievement of SARS-CoV-2 ...

    Authors: Adeniyi Olagunju, Adeola Fowotade, Ajibola Olagunoye, Temitope Olumuyiwa Ojo, Bolanle Olufunlola Adefuye, Adeniyi Francis Fagbamigbe, Akindele Olupelumi Adebiyi, Omobolanle Ibitayo Olagunju, Olabode Taiwo Ladipo, Abdulafeez Akinloye, Babatunde Ayodeji Adeagbo, Adedeji Onayade, Oluseye Oladotun Bolaji, Christian Happi, Steve Rannard and Andrew Owen

    Citation: Trials 2021 22:3

    Content type: Letter

    Published on:

  12. General: To assess the virucidal efficacy of povidone iodine (PVP-I) on COVID-19 virus located in the nasopharynx

    Authors: Mohammad Jahid Hasan, S. K. Nurul Fattah Rumi, Sultana Sahana Banu, A. K. M. Nasir Uddin, Md Shahnoor Islam and Mostafa Kamal Arefin

    Citation: Trials 2021 22:2

    Content type: Letter

    Published on:

  13. Conestat alfa, a recombinant human C1 esterase inhibitor, is a multi-target inhibitor of inflammatory cascades including the complement, the kinin-kallikrein and the contact activation system. The study object...

    Authors: Pascal Urwyler, Panteleimon Charitos, Stephan Moser, Ingmar A. F. M. Heijnen, Marten Trendelenburg, Reto Thoma, Johannes Sumer, Adrián Camacho-Ortiz, Marcelo R. Bacci, Lars C. Huber, Melina Stüssi-Helbling, Werner C. Albrich, Parham Sendi and Michael Osthoff

    Citation: Trials 2021 22:1

    Content type: Letter

    Published on:

  14. An amendment to this paper has been published and can be accessed via the original article.

    Authors: T. Vanassche, M. M. Engelen, Q. Van Thillo, J. Wauters, J. Gunst, C. Wouters, C. Vandenbriele, S. Rex, L. Liesenborghs, A. Wilmer, P. Meersseman, G. Van den Berghe, D. Dauwe, G. Verbeke, M. Thomeer, T. Fivez…

    Citation: Trials 2020 21:1033

    Content type: Correction

    Published on:

    The original article was published in Trials 2020 21:1005

  15. Arterial hypertension is a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease and leads to target organ damage including stroke, heart failure, and kidney disease. About 1.5 billion people worldwide have hypertensio...

    Authors: Anja Mähler, Nicola Wilck, Geraldine Rauch, Ralf Dechend and Dominik N. Müller

    Citation: Trials 2020 21:1032

    Content type: Study protocol

    Published on:

  16. With the lack of effective therapy, chemoprevention, and vaccination against SARS-CoV-2, focusing on the immediate repurposing of existing drugs gives hope of curbing the COVID-19 pandemic. A recent unbiased g...

    Authors: Cédric Annweiler, Mélinda Beaudenon, Jennifer Gautier, Romain Simon, Vincent Dubée, Justine Gonsard and Elsa Parot-Schinkel

    Citation: Trials 2020 21:1031

    Content type: Study protocol

    Published on:

  17. An amendment to this paper has been published and can be accessed via the original article.

    Authors: Aron Onerup, Eva Angenete, David Bock, Mats Börjesson, Monika Fagevik Olsén, Elin Grybäck Gillheimer, Stefan Skullman, Sven-Egron Thörn, Eva Haglind and Hanna Nilsson

    Citation: Trials 2020 21:1030

    Content type: Correction

    Published on:

    The original article was published in Trials 2017 18:212

  18. We aimed to test our expectation that additional administration of Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), maxingshigan-weijing decoction, is more effective in the management of COVID-19 patients compared to those...

    Authors: Congcong Zeng, Zhengzhong Yuan, Xiaoqiong Pan, Jizhou Zhang, Jiahui Zhu, Fan Zhou, Zhuocheng Shan, Ye Yuan, Ren Ye and Jinguo Cheng

    Citation: Trials 2020 21:1029

    Content type: Letter

    Published on:

  19. This study aims to investigate the efficacy of curcumin-piperine co-supplementation on disease duration, severity and clinical symptoms, and inflammatory mediators in patients with coronavirus (COVID-19).

    Authors: Mahsa Miryan, Mohammad Bagherniya, Amirhossein Sahebkar, Davood Soleimani, Mohammad Hossein Rouhani, Bijan Iraj and Gholamreza Askari

    Citation: Trials 2020 21:1027

    Content type: Letter

    Published on:

  20. An amendment to this paper has been published and can be accessed via the original article.

    Authors: Marcia Scazufca, Carina Akemi Nakamura, Tim J. Peters, Maiara Garcia Henrique, Antônio Seabra, Ehidee Gomez La Rotta, Renato M. Franzin, Daniele Ferreira Martins, Pepijn Van de Ven, William Hollingworth and Ricardo Araya

    Citation: Trials 2020 21:1026

    Content type: Correction

    Published on:

    The original article was published in Trials 2020 21:914

  21. Entertainment-education (E-E) media can improve behavioral intent toward health-related practices. In the era of COVID-19, millions of people can be reached by E-E media without requiring any physical contact....

    Authors: Alain Vandormael, Maya Adam, Merlin Greuel and Till Bärnighausen

    Citation: Trials 2020 21:1025

    Content type: Update

    Published on:

    The Letter to this article has been published in Trials 2020 21:469

  22. An amendment to this paper has been published and can be accessed via the original article.

    Authors: Timothy Devos, Tatjana Geukens, Alexander Schauwvlieghe, Kevin K. Ariën, Cyril Barbezange, Myriam Cleeren, Veerle Compernolle, Nicolas Dauby, Daniël Desmecht, David Grimaldi, Bart N. Lambrecht, Anne Luyten, Piet Maes, Michel Moutschen, Marta Romano, Lucie Seyler…

    Citation: Trials 2020 21:1024

    Content type: Correction

    Published on:

    The original article was published in Trials 2020 21:981

  23. The prevalence of mental health disorders is increasing globally, and the prevalence of COVID-19 has made it worse. Evidence has indicated a major mental health burden and elevated anxiety associated with the ...

    Authors: Fatemeh Khademian, Azam Aslani, Ramin Ravangard, Peivand Bastani, Mohammad Nami and Peyman Jafari

    Citation: Trials 2020 21:1023

    Content type: Study protocol

    Published on:

  24. There are limited data comparing the oncologic and fertility outcomes of patients with early-stage cervical cancer (CC) treated by minimally invasive radical trachelectomy (MIRT) or abdominal radical trachelec...

    Authors: Xiaopei Chao, Lei Li, Ming Wu, Huanwen Wu, Shuiqing Ma, Xianjie Tan, Sen Zhong and Jinghe Lang

    Citation: Trials 2020 21:1022

    Content type: Study protocol

    Published on:

  25. The Pain Management Collaboratory (PMC) is a multi-site network of pragmatic clinical trials (PCTs) focused on nonpharmacological approaches to pain management, conducted in health care systems of the US Depar...

    Authors: Mary Geda, Steven Z. George, Diana J. Burgess, Dylan V. Scarton, William T. Roddy, Kirsha S. Gordon, Paul F. Pasquina, Cynthia A. Brandt, Robert D. Kerns and Peter Peduzzi

    Citation: Trials 2020 21:1021

    Content type: Methodology

    Published on:

  26. Myofascial pain syndrome (MPS) is a prevalent chronic pain disorder primarily characterized by myofascial trigger points (MTrPs). There is limited knowledge on the pathophysiology and mechanisms underlying MTr...

    Authors: Valerie Evans, Michael Behr, Kei Masani and Dinesh Kumbhare

    Citation: Trials 2020 21:1020

    Content type: Study protocol

    Published on:

  27. Burnout is an occupational syndrome that leads to mental health problems, job turnover, and patient safety events. Those caring for critically ill patients are especially susceptible due to high patient mortal...

    Authors: Marjorie E. Bateman, Rachel Hammer, Abigail Byrne, Nithya Ravindran, Jennifer Chiurco, Sasha Lasky, Rebecca Denson, Margo Brown, Leann Myers, Yuanhao Zu and Joshua L. Denson

    Citation: Trials 2020 21:1019

    Content type: Study protocol

    Published on:

  28. Most cardiac surgery patients undergo median sternotomy during open heart surgery. Sternotomy healing is an arduous, very complex, and multifactorial process dependent on many independent factors affecting the...

    Authors: Michal Čečrle, Dalibor Černý, Eva Sedláčková, Barbora Míková, Vlasta Dudková, Eva Drncová, Michala Pokusová, Ivo Skalský, Jana Tamášová and Milada Halačová

    Citation: Trials 2020 21:1018

    Content type: Study protocol

    Published on:

  29. Pregestational diabetes mellitus (PGDM) is associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes including increased rates of caesarean section birth, macrosomia, congenital malformation, prematurity, admission to the ne...

    Authors: Oratile Kgosidialwa, Delia Bogdanet, Aoife Egan, Paula M. O’Shea, Linda Biesty, Declan Devane and Fidelma Dunne

    Citation: Trials 2020 21:1017

    Content type: Study protocol

    Published on:

  30. The conventional clinical trial design in Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and AD-related disorders (ADRDs) is the parallel-group randomized controlled trial. However, in heterogeneous disorders like AD/ADRDs, this de...

    Authors: Libby A. DesRuisseaux, Victoria J. Williams, Alison J. McManus, Anoopum S. Gupta, Becky C. Carlyle, Hamed Azami, Jessica A. Gerber, Anna M. Bolling, Carolyn L. Cook, Rebecca A. Betensky and Steven E. Arnold

    Citation: Trials 2020 21:1016

    Content type: Study protocol

    Published on:

  31. Measles is a highly contagious and serious infection. Before the introduction of vaccination, measles caused yearly epidemics putting vulnerable children at risk of brain damage and death. Despite safe and cos...

    Authors: Dorthe Maria Vittrup, Anne Cathrine Lund Laursen, Michelle Malon, Jesper Kiehn Soerensen, Jakob Hjort, Soren Buus, Jannet Svensson and Lone Graff Stensballe

    Citation: Trials 2020 21:1015

    Content type: Study protocol

    Published on:

  32. SARS-Cov-2 virus preferentially binds to the Angiotensin Converting Enzyme 2 (ACE2) on alveolar epithelial type II cells, initiating an inflammatory response and tissue damage which may impair surfactant synth...

    Authors: Ahilanandan Dushianthan, Howard Clark, Jens Madsen, Robin Mogg, Lewis Matthews, Lee Berry, Jorge Bernardino de la Serna, James Batchelor, David Brealey, Tracy Hussell, Joanna Porter, Ratko Djukanovic, Martin Feelisch, Anthony Postle and Michael P. W. Grocott

    Citation: Trials 2020 21:1014

    Content type: Letter

    Published on:

  33. More than half of the unaccompanied young refugees (UYRs) resettled in Europe report elevated levels of posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS) and comorbid symptoms. Earlier studies have highlighted the effectiv...

    Authors: Rita Rosner, Cedric Sachser, Fabienne Hornfeck, Reinhold Kilian, Heinz Kindler, Rainer Muche, Lauritz Rudolf Floribert Müller, Jonathan Thielemann, Tamara Waldmann, Ute Ziegenhain, Johanna Unterhitzenberger and Elisa Pfeiffer

    Citation: Trials 2020 21:1013

    Content type: Study protocol

    Published on:

  34. Postherpetic neuralgia (PHN) is the most common complication attributed to herpes zoster, which involves the reactivation of residual varicella zoster virus. It has been reported previously that pre-emptive am...

    Authors: Zheng Chen, Niti Shrestha, Chunmei Zhao, Bifa Fan and Fang Luo

    Citation: Trials 2020 21:1012

    Content type: Study protocol

    Published on:

  35. Despite being the gold standard of research to determine effectiveness, randomised controlled trials (RCTs) often struggle with participant recruitment, engagement and retention. These issues may be exacerbate...

    Authors: Charlotte L. Hall, Charlotte Sanderson, Beverly J. Brown, Per Andrén, Sophie Bennett, Liam R. Chamberlain, E. Bethan Davies, Kareem Khan, Natalie Kouzoupi, David Mataix-Cols, Caitlin McKenzie, Tara Murphy, Mark Townsend, Chris Hollis and Elizabeth Murray

    Citation: Trials 2020 21:1011

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  36. Return to work (RTW) is achieved by less than 50% of stroke survivors. The rising incidence of stroke among younger people, the UK economic forecast, and clinical drivers highlight the need for stroke survivor...

    Authors: Kathryn A. Radford, Kristelle Craven, Vicki McLellan, Tracey H. Sach, Richard Brindle, Ivana Holloway, Suzanne Hartley, Audrey Bowen, Rory O’Connor, Judith Stevens, Julie Philips, Marion Walker, Jain Holmes, Christopher McKevitt, John Murray, Caroline Watkins…

    Citation: Trials 2020 21:1010

    Content type: Study protocol

    Published on:

  37. Syphilis rates have been increasing both in the USA and internationally with incidence higher among men-who-have-sex-with-men and people living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. Currently, ben...

    Authors: Shivani N. Mehta, Chrysovalantis Stafylis, David M. Tellalian, Pamela L. Burian, Cliff M. Okada, Carl E. Millner, Christopher M. Mejia and Jeffrey D. Klausner

    Citation: Trials 2020 21:1009

    Content type: Study protocol

    Published on:

  38. While magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) plays a major role in the lives of people with multiple sclerosis (pwMS), studies have shown that MRI-specific knowledge in pwMS is limited. Moreover, poor knowledge was ...

    Authors: Insa Schiffmann, Magalie Freund, Eik Vettorazzi, Jan-Patrick Stellmann, Susanne Heyer-Borchelt, Marie D’Hooghe, Vivien Häußler, Anne Christin Rahn and Christoph Heesen

    Citation: Trials 2020 21:1008

    Content type: Study protocol

    Published on:

  39. Sports and exercise training can attenuate age-related declines in physical function. As people age, they suffer a progressive deterioration of overall muscle structure and function, such as muscle diameter, s...

    Authors: Guevar Alkhateeb and Lars Donath

    Citation: Trials 2020 21:1007

    Content type: Study protocol

    Published on:

  40. This interventional study will investigate the effect of daily use of a mindfulness app on measures of participant anxiety, well-being, and perceived outlook during the COVID-19 pandemic, by comparing pre-inte...

    Authors: Katherine T. O’Donnell, Melanie Dunbar and Diana L. Speelman

    Citation: Trials 2020 21:1006

    Content type: Letter

    Published on:

  41. The peak of the global COVID-19 pandemic has not yet been reached, and many countries face the prospect of a second wave of infections before effective vaccinations will be available. After an initial phase of...

    Authors: T. Vanassche, M. M. Engelen, Q. Van Thillo, J. Wauters, J. Gunst, C. Wouters, C. Vandenbriele, S. Rex, L. Liesenborghs, A. Wilmer, P. Meersseman, G. Van den Berghe, D. Dauwe, G. Verbeke, M. Thomeer, T. Fivez…

    Citation: Trials 2020 21:1005

    Content type: Study protocol

    Published on:

    The Correction to this article has been published in Trials 2020 21:1033

  42. An amendment to this paper has been published and can be accessed via the original article.

    Authors: Birgitta M. Weltermann, Christine Kersting, Claudia Pieper, Tanja Seifried-Dübon, Annegret Dreher, Karen Linden, Esther Rind, Claudia Ose, Karl-Heinz Jöckel, Florian Junne, Brigitte Werners, Verena Schroeder, Jean-Marie Bois, Achim Siegel, Anika Thielmann, Monika A. Rieger…

    Citation: Trials 2020 21:1004

    Content type: Publisher Correction

    Published on:

    The original article was published in Trials 2020 21:532

  43. Opioid dependence is an increasing public health problem all over the world. Patients with opioid dependence have to receive methadone maintenance therapy (MMT) as replacement therapy for years or even for the...

    Authors: Hao Wen, Shichao Xu, Jingchun Zeng, Shuqi Ge, Yuan Liao, Chunzhi Tang, Songhua Xiao and Liming Lu

    Citation: Trials 2020 21:1003

    Content type: Study protocol

    Published on:

  44. Albumin is a key regulator of fluid distribution within the extracellular space and has several properties beyond its oncotic activity. The accumulating evidence suggests that supplementation of albumin may pr...

    Authors: Yasser Sakr, Michael Bauer, Axel Nierhaus, Stefan Kluge, Ulricke Schumacher, Christian Putensen, Falk Fichtner, Sirak Petros, Christian Scheer, Ulrich Jaschinski, Ivan Tanev, David Jacob, Norbert Weiler, P. Christian Schulze, Fritz Fiedler, Barbara Kapfer…

    Citation: Trials 2020 21:1002

    Content type: Study protocol

    Published on:

  45. Antisocial personality disorder (ASPD), although associated with very significant health and social burden, is an under-researched mental disorder for which clinically effective and cost-effective treatment me...

    Authors: Peter Fonagy, Jessica Yakeley, Tessa Gardner, Elizabeth Simes, Mary McMurran, Paul Moran, Mike Crawford, Alison Frater, Barbara Barrett, Angus Cameron, James Wason, Stephen Pilling, Stephen Butler and Anthony Bateman

    Citation: Trials 2020 21:1001

    Content type: Study protocol

    Published on:

  46. Sample size calculations require assumptions regarding treatment response and variability. Incorrect assumptions can result in under- or overpowered trials, posing ethical concerns. Sample size re-estimation (...

    Authors: Julia M. Edwards, Stephen J. Walters, Cornelia Kunz and Steven A. Julious

    Citation: Trials 2020 21:1000

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  47. A severe epidemic of COVID-19 has broken out in China and has become a major global public health event. We focus on the Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS)-like changes and overactivation of Th17 cells...

    Authors: Panpan Liu, Zhijun Huang, Mingzhu Yin, Chun Liu, Xiang Chen, Pinhua Pan and Yehong Kuang

    Citation: Trials 2020 21:999

    Content type: Letter

    Published on:

  48. Postoperative acute pain is a common issue following thoracic surgery. Acupotomy is a common and safe intervention method for pain treatment in clinical practice. In previous preliminary experiments, we found ...

    Authors: Cai Jiang, Yinyan Li, Xiaomei Li, Jinhua Guo, Miaomiao Guo, Shengxian Yu and Zhonghua Lin

    Citation: Trials 2020 21:998

    Content type: Study protocol

    Published on:

  49. Policy-makers are increasingly seeking rigorous evidence on the impact of programs that go beyond typical health care settings to improve outcomes for low-income families during the critical period around the ...

    Authors: Margaret A. McConnell, R. Annetta Zhou, Michelle W. Martin, Rebecca A. Gourevitch, Maria Steenland, Mary Ann Bates, Chloe Zera, Michele Hacker, Alyna Chien and Katherine Baicker

    Citation: Trials 2020 21:997

    Content type: Study protocol

    Published on:

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