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  1. Content type: Study protocol

    Individuals with spinal cord injuries (SCI) are prone to pressure ulcers (PUs) because of the loss of sensorimotor function involved as well as increased skin moisture. Treatment of PU after SCI is complicated...

    Authors: Ingebjørg Irgens, Jana M. Hoff, Hilde Sørli, Hanne Haugland, Johan K. Stanghelle and Tiina Rekand

    Citation: Trials 2019 20:77

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  2. Content type: Study protocol

    Cardiac rehabilitation (CR) programs addressing risk factor management, educational interventions, and exercise contribute to reduce mortality after myocardial infarction (MI). However, the fulfillment of guid...

    Authors: Manuel Gonzalez, Ingela Sjölin, Maria Bäck, Halldora Ögmundsdottir Michelsen, Tina Tanha, Camilla Sandberg, Alexandru Schiopu and Margret Leosdottir

    Citation: Trials 2019 20:76

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  3. Content type: Study protocol

    Frequent users of emergency medical services for issues that could be more appropriately managed through non-urgent care deplete the limited resources of the health-care system. Community paramedicine is an em...

    Authors: Gina Agarwal, Melissa Pirrie, Brent McLeod, Ricardo Angeles, Walter Tavares, Francine Marzanek and Lehana Thabane

    Citation: Trials 2019 20:75

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  4. Content type: Study protocol

    Only a small fraction of individuals with pathological or problematic gambling seek professional help despite available evidence-based treatments such as cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT). Anonymous Internet-...

    Authors: Lara Bücker, Stefan Westermann, Simone Kühn and Steffen Moritz

    Citation: Trials 2019 20:74

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  5. Content type: Study protocol

    Early and excessive alcohol use is a significant threat to healthy development. Evidence supports the effectiveness of electronic alcohol interventions for young drinkers. However, effects are typically small ...

    Authors: Silke Diestelkamp, Lutz Wartberg, Michael Kaess, Stephanie Bauer, Christine Rummel-Kluge, Katja Becker, Heike Eschenbeck, Hans-Joachim Salize, Markus Moessner, Christiane Baldus, Nicolas Arnaud and Rainer Thomasius

    Citation: Trials 2019 20:73

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  6. Content type: Study protocol

    Postoperative delirium is a common disorder in older adults that is associated with higher morbidity and mortality, prolonged cognitive impairment, development of dementia, higher institutionalization rates, a...

    Authors: Alba Sánchez, Christine Thomas, Friederike Deeken, Sören Wagner, Stefan Klöppel, Felix Kentischer, Christine A. F. von Arnim, Michael Denkinger, Lars O. Conzelmann, Janine Biermann-Stallwitz, Stefanie Joos, Heidrun Sturm, Brigitte Metz, Ramona Auer, Yoanna Skrobik, Gerhard W. Eschweiler…

    Citation: Trials 2019 20:71

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  7. Content type: Study protocol

    Low-dose acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) in patients with chronic subdural hematoma (cSDH) represents a significant neurosurgical challenge. While continuation of ASA during the perioperative phase might increase r...

    Authors: Maria Kamenova, Christian Mueller, Michael Coslovsky, Raphael Guzman, Luigi Mariani and Jehuda Soleman

    Citation: Trials 2019 20:70

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  8. Content type: Study protocol

    Chronic low-back pain (CLBP) is one of the most common reasons for seeking medical care and it imposes a significant burden on individuals and society at large. Systematic reviews evaluating the effectiveness ...

    Authors: Suzana Pustivšek and Nejc Šarabon

    Citation: Trials 2019 20:69

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  9. Content type: Study protocol

    Respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) and feeding intolerance are common conditions in preterm infants and among the major causes of neonatal mortality and morbidity.

    Authors: Francesco Cresi, Elena Maggiora, Silvia Maria Borgione, Elena Spada, Alessandra Coscia, Enrico Bertino, Fabio Meneghin, Luigi Tommaso Corvaglia, Maria Luisa Ventura and Gianluca Lista

    Citation: Trials 2019 20:67

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  10. Content type: Study protocol

    People with allergic rhinitis (AR) often seek help from Chinese medicine due to dissatisfaction with conventional treatments. Lung-spleen qi deficiency syndrome (LSQDS) is the most common type of AR, and the Chin...

    Authors: Qiulan Luo, Shiqing Zhou, Xiaoshan Li, Qubo Chen, Wenmin Lin, Liming Lu, Hua Li, Caifeng Chen, Wenyong Chen and Yunying Li

    Citation: Trials 2019 20:66

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  11. Content type: Study protocol

    Postprandial distress syndrome (PDS) has a considerable impact on quality of life. Our previous pilot trial suggested that acupuncture might be a potential treatment option for PDS. We will conduct this large ...

    Authors: Ya-Quan Hou, Xin Zhang, Jian-Feng Tu, Yang Zheng, Jing-Wen Yang, Mirim Kim, Hui Hu, Li-Qiong Wang, Jing-Jie Zhao, Wei Zhou, Jun Wang, Xuan Zou, Yu Wang, Guang-Xia Shi and Cun-Zhi Liu

    Citation: Trials 2019 20:65

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  12. Content type: Study protocol

    Schools are an ideal setting in which to promote health. However, empirical data on the effectiveness of school-based mental health promotion programs are rare, and research on universal Internet-based prevent...

    Authors: Heike Eschenbeck, Laya Lehner, Hanna Hofmann, Stephanie Bauer, Katja Becker, Silke Diestelkamp, Michael Kaess, Markus Moessner, Christine Rummel-Kluge and Hans-Joachim Salize

    Citation: Trials 2019 20:64

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  13. Content type: Study protocol

    At birth, the majority of neonates born at <30 weeks of gestation require respiratory support to facilitate transition and ensure adequate gas exchange. Although the optimal approach to the initial respiratory...

    Authors: Carl H. Backes, Jennifer L. Notestine, Jane M. Lamp, Jeanne C. Balough, Allison M. Notestine, Crystal M. Alfred, Juli M. Kern, Michael R. Stenger, Brian K. Rivera, Mohannad Moallem, Randy R. Miller, Apurwa Naik, Jennifer N. Cooper, Christopher R. Howard, Stephen E. Welty, Noah H. Hillman…

    Citation: Trials 2019 20:63

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  14. Content type: Study protocol

    Variations in care models contribute to cancer pain being under-recognised and under-treated in half of all patients with cancer. International and national cancer pain management guidelines are achievable wit...

    Authors: Jane L. Phillips, Nicole Heneka, Melanie Lovell, Lawrence Lam, Patricia Davidson, Frances Boyle, Nikki McCaffrey, Sally Fielding and Tim Shaw

    Citation: Trials 2019 20:62

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  15. Content type: Study protocol

    Currently available prophylactic migraine treatment options are limited and are associated with many, often intolerable, side-effects. Various lines of research suggest that abnormalities in energy metabolism ...

    Authors: Elena Gross, Niveditha Putananickal, Anna-Lena Orsini, Simone Schmidt, Deborah R. Vogt, Sven Cichon, Peter Sandor and Dirk Fischer

    Citation: Trials 2019 20:61

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  16. Content type: Study protocol

    Mechanical ventilation (MV) is a life-saving technology that restores or assists breathing. Like any treatment, MV has side effects. In some patients it can cause diaphragmatic atrophy, injury, and dysfunction...

    Authors: Douglas Evans, Deborah Shure, Linda Clark, Gerard J. Criner, Martin Dres, Marcelo Gama de Abreu, Franco Laghi, David McDonagh, Basil Petrof, Teresa Nelson and Thomas Similowski

    Citation: Trials 2019 20:60

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  17. Content type: Study protocol

    Chronic neck pain (CNP) is a common and disabling musculoskeletal disorder in developing and developed countries. Previous studies have shown that tuina and traditional Chinese massage are effective treatments fo...

    Authors: Zhiwei Wu, Lingjun Kong, Qingguang Zhu, Pengfei Song, Min Fang, Wuquan Sun, Hao Zhang, Yanbin Cheng, Shanda Xu, Guangxin Guo, Xin Zhou and Zhizhen Lv

    Citation: Trials 2019 20:59

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  18. Content type: Study protocol

    Celecoxib is frequently prescribed to treat knee osteoarthritis (KOA), but how celecoxib influences the activity of the central nervous system to alleviate chronic pain remains unclear.

    Authors: Chenjian Tang, Xiaohui Dong, Wenhua He, Shirui Cheng, Yang Chen, Yong Huang, Bao Yin, Yu Sheng, Jun Zhou, Xiaoli Wu, Fang Zeng, Zhengjie Li and Fanrong Liang

    Citation: Trials 2019 20:58

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  19. Content type: Study protocol

    Treatment success rates of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) remain unsatisfactory, and long-term use of second-line anti-TB drugs is accompanied by the frequent occurrence of adverse events, low treat...

    Authors: Myungsun Lee, Jeongha Mok, Deog Kyeom Kim, Tae Sun Shim, Won-Jung Koh, Doosoo Jeon, Taehoon Lee, Seung Heon Lee, Ju Sang Kim, Jae Seuk Park, Ji Yeon Lee, Song Yee Kim, Jae Ho Lee, Kyung-Wook Jo, Byung Woo Jhun, Young Ae Kang…

    Citation: Trials 2019 20:57

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  20. Content type: Study protocol

    Sciatica is a relatively frequent illness that easily becomes a chronic and relapsing condition. Although numerous systematic reviews have analyzed various therapies for sciatica, the validity of their include...

    Authors: Koh-Woon Kim, Kyungmo Park, Hi-Joon Park, Geon-Ho Jahng, Dae-Jean Jo, Jae-Heung Cho, Eun-Mo Song, Woo-Chul Shin, Ye-Ji Yoon, Soo-Jeon Kim, Seulgi Eun and Mi-Yeon Song

    Citation: Trials 2019 20:56

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  21. Content type: Study protocol

    Inguinal hernia repair is one of the most common surgical operations globally; more than 20 million groin herniae are repaired annually worldwide. Recurrence after an inguinal hernia operation is a considerabl...

    Authors: C. S. Seefeldt, J. S. Meyer, J. Knievel, A. Rieger, R. Geißen, R. Lefering and M. M. Heiss

    Citation: Trials 2019 20:55

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  22. Content type: Update

    Social isolation potentiates the risk of death by cancer in the older cancer patient population. The PREDOMOS study investigates the impact of establishing a Program of Social intervention associated with tech...

    Authors: Anne-Laure Couderc, Emilie Nouguerède, Karine Baumstarck, Sandrine Loubière, Hervé Le Caer, Olivier Guillem, Frédérique Rousseau, Laurent Greillier, Emmanuelle Norguet-Monnereau, Maud Cecile, Rabia Boulahssass, Françoise Le Caer, Sandrine Tournier, Chantal Butaud, Pierre Guillet, Sophie Nahon…

    Citation: Trials 2019 20:54

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    The Study protocol to this article has been published in Trials 2017 18:174

  23. Content type: Study protocol

    Depression is a serious mental health problem and is common in children and adolescents. Online interventions are promising in overcoming the widespread undertreatment of depression and in improving the help-s...

    Authors: Sabrina Baldofski, Elisabeth Kohls, Stephanie Bauer, Katja Becker, Sally Bilic, Heike Eschenbeck, Michael Kaess, Markus Moessner, Hans Joachim Salize, Silke Diestelkamp, Elke Voß and Christine Rummel-Kluge

    Citation: Trials 2019 20:53

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  24. Content type: Research

    The objective of this study was to analyze the impact of two forms of secondary preventive follow-up on the association between education level and levels of blood pressure (BP) and low-density lipoprotein cho...

    Authors: Anna-Lotta Irewall, Joachim Ögren, Lisa Bergström, Katarina Laurell, Lars Söderström and Thomas Mooe

    Citation: Trials 2019 20:52

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  25. Content type: Study protocol

    A fiberoptic bronchoscope (FOB) is commonly used to identify the proper placement of a double-lumen endotracheal tube (DLT) for good lung isolation during thoracic surgery. We hypothesized that the FOB-guided ...

    Authors: Taeha Ryu, Eugene Kim, Jong Hae Kim, Seong Jun Woo, Woon Seok Roh and Sung Hye Byun

    Citation: Trials 2019 20:51

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  26. Content type: Study protocol

    Women undergoing in vitro fertilization (IVF) or intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) with poor ovarian respond (POR) always have very low clinical pregnancy rates. In previous data, dehydroepiandrosterone ...

    Authors: Wei Wang, Hong Liu, Jing Li, Daimin Wei, Jiangtao Zhang, Jianfeng Wang, Jinlong Ma, Yuhua Shi and Zi-Jiang Chen

    Citation: Trials 2019 20:50

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  27. Content type: Study protocol

    Gabapentin has shown efficacy in the treatment of chronic neuropathic or mixed pain in adults. Although pediatric pain specialists have extensive experience with gabapentin for the treatment of neuropathic pai...

    Authors: Thomas G. de Leeuw, Laura Mangiarini, Rebecca Lundin, Florentia Kaguelidou, Tjitske van der Zanden, Oscar Della Pasqua, Dick Tibboel, Adriana Ceci and Saskia N. de Wildt

    Citation: Trials 2019 20:49

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  28. Content type: Correction

    Following publication of the original article [1], we have been notified that one of the author names was listed incorrectly. Both incorrect and correct author names are presented below. The original publicati...

    Authors: David S. Lawrence, Nabila Youssouf, Síle F. Molloy, Alexandre Alanio, Melanie Alufandika, David R. Boulware, Timothée Boyer-Chammard, Tao Chen, Francoise Dromer, Admire Hlupeni, William Hope, Mina C. Hosseinipour, Cecilia Kanyama, Oliver Lortholary, Angela Loyse, David B. Meya…

    Citation: Trials 2019 20:48

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    The original article was published in Trials 2018 19:649

  29. Content type: Study protocol

    There is an increased risk of premature death in people with severe mental illness (SMI). Respiratory disorders and cardiovascular disease are leading causes of increased mortality rates in these patients, and...

    Authors: María José Jaén-Moreno, Nuria Feu, Justa Redondo-Écija, Francisco Javier Montiel, Cristina Gómez, Gloria I. del Pozo, Jose Ángel Alcalá, Luis Gutiérrez-Rojas, Vicente Balanzá-Martinez, Geli Marie Chauca, Laura Carrión, Maria Isabel Osuna, María Dolores Sánchez, Inmaculada Caro, Miriam Ayora, Francisca Valdivia…

    Citation: Trials 2019 20:47

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  30. Content type: Study protocol

    Axial spondyloarthritis (AxSpA) is a chronic disease which results in fatigue, pain, and reduced quality of life (QoL). Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), especially acupuncture, has shown promise in managing...

    Authors: Yu Heng Kwan, Warren Fong, Xiang Ling Ang, Chuen Seng Tan, Bee Choo Tai, Youyi Huang, Marcel Bilger, Jie Kie Phang, Hui Chin Tan, Jia Ven Lee, Limin Sun, Choy Tip Tan, Bao Qiang Dong, Hwee Ling Koh, Ying Ying Leung, Nai Lee Lui…

    Citation: Trials 2019 20:46

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  31. Content type: Research

    A system of dementia-specific case conferences (WELCOME-IdA) was evaluated using a stepped-wedge design in six nursing homes (NHs) to enable nursing staff to analyse properly the behavioural and psychological ...

    Authors: Daniela Holle, Rene Müller-Widmer, Sven Reuther, Ute Rosier-Segschneider, Rabea Graf, Martina Roes and Margareta Halek

    Citation: Trials 2019 20:45

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  32. Content type: Study protocol

    Recent clinical observations have reported the potential benefit of vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) as an adjunctive therapy for pediatric epilepsy. Preliminary evidence suggests that VNS treatment is effective ...

    Authors: Taoyun Ji, Zhao Yang, Qingzhu Liu, Jianxiang Liao, Fei Yin, Yanhui Chen, Liping Zou, Baomin Li, Yuxing Gao, Xiaomei Shu, Shaoping Huang, Feng Gao, Jianmin Liang, Su Fang Lin, Jing Peng, Shiwei Song…

    Citation: Trials 2019 20:44

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  33. Content type: Update

    The objective of the Dutch Sildenafil therapy in dismal prognosis early onset fetal growth restriction (STRIDER) randomised clinical trial is to assess the beneficial and harmful effects of sildenafil versus p...

    Authors: Anouk Pels, Janus C. Jakobsen, Wessel Ganzevoort, Christiana A. Naaktgeboren, Wes Onland, Aleid G. van Wassenaer-Leemhuis and Christian Gluud

    Citation: Trials 2019 20:42

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  34. Content type: Study protocol

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) not only affects pulmonary function but also leads to skeletal muscle dysfunction. The various characteristics of different forms of traditional Chinese exercise le...

    Authors: Xiaodan Liu, Peijun Li, Lu Xiao, Yufan Lu, Ning Li, Zhengrong Wang, Hongxia Duan, Jian Li and Weibing Wu

    Citation: Trials 2019 20:41

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  35. Content type: Study protocol

    Transcutaneous electrical acupoint stimulation (TEAS), which is also known as acupuncture-like transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS), has been widely used in acute or chronic pain. However, previo...

    Authors: Yi Liang, Guanai Bao, Liyan Gong, Jie Zhou, Xiangming Kong, Ran Ran, Xiaomei Shao, Yongliang Jiang, Weiping Zhang, Boyi Liu, Junying Du, Junfan Fang, Na Nie, Conghua Ji and Jianqiao Fang

    Citation: Trials 2019 20:40

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  36. Content type: Study protocol

    Cardiac surgical procedures are associated with postoperative neurological complications such as cognitive decline and delirium, which can complicate recovery and impair quality of life. Perioperative depressi...

    Authors: Senthil Packiasabapathy, Ammu T. Susheela, Ariel Mueller, Melissa Patxot, Doris-Vanessa Gasangwa, Brian O’Gara, Shahzad Shaefi, Edward R. Marcantonio, Gloria Y. Yeh and Balachundhar Subramaniam

    Citation: Trials 2019 20:39

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  37. Content type: Study protocol

    Up to 75% of inpatients with mental disorders smoke, and their life expectancy is decreased by up to 25 years compared to the general population. Hospitalized patients without monitoring after discharge quickl...

    Authors: Montse Ballbè, Cristina Martínez, Ariadna Feliu, Núria Torres, Gemma Nieva, Cristina Pinet, Antònia Raich, Sílvia Mondon, Pablo Barrio, Rosa Hernández-Ribas, Jordi Vicens, Sílvia Costa, Jordi Vilaplana, Laura Alaustre, Eva Vilalta, Roser Blanch…

    Citation: Trials 2019 20:38

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  38. Content type: Study protocol

    Late antibody-mediated rejection (ABMR) triggered by donor-specific antibodies (DSA) is a cardinal cause of kidney allograft dysfunction and loss. Diagnostic criteria for this rejection type are well establish...

    Authors: Farsad Eskandary, Michael Dürr, Klemens Budde, Konstantin Doberer, Roman Reindl-Schwaighofer, Johannes Waiser, Markus Wahrmann, Heinz Regele, Andreas Spittler, Nils Lachmann, Christa Firbas, Jakob Mühlbacher, Gregor Bond, Philipp F. Halloran, Edward Chong, Bernd Jilma…

    Citation: Trials 2019 20:37

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  39. Content type: Study protocol

    Physical rehabilitation is required to enhance functional outcomes and overall recovery following total knee arthroplasty (TKA). However, there are no universally accepted clinical guidelines available to cons...

    Authors: Matthew G. Liptak, Annika Theodoulou, Billingsley Kaambwa, Steve Saunders, Scott W. Hinrichs, Richard J. Woodman and Jeganath Krishnan

    Citation: Trials 2019 20:36

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  40. Content type: Study protocol

    Selective fetal growth restriction in monochorionic twin pregnancies is associated with an increased risk of perinatal mortality and morbidity and represents a clinical dilemma. Interventions include expectant...

    Authors: Asma Khalil, James M. N. Duffy, Helen Perry, Wessel Ganzevoort, Keith Reed, Ahmet A. Baschat, Jan Deprest, Eduardo Gratacos, Kurt Hecher, Liesbeth Lewi, Enrico Lopriore, Dick Oepkes, Aris Papageorghiou and Sanne J. Gordijn

    Citation: Trials 2019 20:35

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  41. Content type: Study protocol

    Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a common psychiatric disorder. With systematic antidepressant treatment, 50–75% of patients have a treatment response but require 4–6 weeks to have their symptoms alleviated....

    Authors: Yiyi Chen, Xiaomin Cao, Wensi Zang, Shanyong Tan, Chun-quan Ou, Xiaoyan Shen, Tianming Gao and Lianxu Zhao

    Citation: Trials 2019 20:34

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  42. Content type: Study protocol

    Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a prevalent and disabling disorder that can lead to heavy individual, familial, and societal burdens. Although pharmaceutical interventions still play an essential role in th...

    Authors: Jingjing Zhou, Weiwei Wang, Jian Yang, Xuequan Zhu, Lei Feng, Le Xiao and Gang Wang

    Citation: Trials 2019 20:33

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  43. Content type: Study protocol

    Patients suffering from chronic, subjective tinnitus are on a quest to find a cure or any form of alleviation for their persistent complaint. Current recommended therapy forms provide psychotherapeutic interve...

    Authors: Tine Luyten, Paul Van de Heyning, Laure Jacquemin, Nancy Van Looveren, Frank Declau, Erik Fransen and Annick Gilles

    Citation: Trials 2019 20:32

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  44. Content type: Study protocol

    The insertion of a laryngeal mask airway (LMA) is difficult in children due to the unique features of their airways. Muscle relaxants have been reported to facilitate LMA insertion in adults; however, there is...

    Authors: Sung Hye Byun, Soo Jin Kim and Eugene Kim

    Citation: Trials 2019 20:31

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  45. Content type: Study protocol

    The number of patients operated on for total knee arthroplasty (TKA) is growing worldwide. Outpatient surgery is defined by a length of stay (LOS) in the hospital of less than 12 h. This can be limited for TKA...

    Authors: Laurie Tran, Melissa Barthelemy, Pascal Boileau, Marc Raucoules-Aime, Michel Carles and Christophe Trojani

    Citation: Trials 2019 20:30

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  46. Content type: Study protocol

    School absenteeism (SA) is associated with anxiety, depression, and disruptive behavior. It is a risk factor for academic difficulties and school dropout, which predict problems in adulthood such as social, wo...

    Authors: Mikael Thastum, Daniel Bach Johnsen, Wendy K. Silverman, Pia Jeppesen, David A. Heyne and Johanne Jeppesen Lomholt

    Citation: Trials 2019 20:29

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  47. Content type: Study protocol

    Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is a transition state between asymptomatic stage and dementia. Amnestic MCI (aMCI) patients who mainly present with memory deficits are highly likely to progress to Alzheimer’s ...

    Authors: Kan Zhang, Junyang Wang, Guoping Peng, Ping Liu, Fangping He, Zude Zhu and Benyan Luo

    Citation: Trials 2019 20:26

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