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  1. Consultations in primary care for symptoms of urinary tract infections (UTIs) are common and patients are frequently treated with antibiotics. Given increasing antimicrobial resistance, there has been interest...

    Authors: Oghenekome Gbinigie, Julie Allen, Anne-Marie Boylan, Alastair Hay, Carl Heneghan, Michael Moore, Nicola Williams and Chris Butler

    Citation: Trials 2019 20:767

    Content type: Study protocol

    Published on:

  2. Labor pain is one of the leading causes of fear of childbirth. Acupressure is a non-pharmacological pain relief method that has shown promising results in relieving this pain. The present study is designed to ...

    Authors: Zainab Alimoradi, Farideh Kazemi, Mahboubeh Valiani and Maryam Gorji

    Citation: Trials 2019 20:766

    Content type: Study protocol

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  3. There is a concern that the apparent effectiveness of interventions tested in clinical trials may not be an accurate reflection of their actual effectiveness in usual practice. Pragmatic randomized controlled ...

    Authors: Stuart G. Nicholls, Kelly Carroll, Merrick Zwarenstein, Jamie C. Brehaut, Charles Weijer, Spencer P. Hey, Cory E. Goldstein, Ian D. Graham, Jeremy M. Grimshaw, Joanne E. McKenzie, Dean A. Fergusson and Monica Taljaard

    Citation: Trials 2019 20:765

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  4. Stroke has emerged as a leading cause of death in rural India. However, well-tested healthcare interventions to reduce stroke mortality in rural under-resourced settings are lacking. The aim of this study is t...

    Authors: Yogeshwar Kalkonde, Mahesh Deshmukh, Sindhu Nila, Sunil Jadhao and Abhay Bang

    Citation: Trials 2019 20:764

    Content type: Study protocol

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  5. A 2014 Cochrane review evaluating the effect of anabolic steroids after hip fracture concluded that the quality of the studies was insufficient to draw conclusions on the effects and recommended further high-q...

    Authors: Signe Hulsbæk, Ilija Ban, Tobias Kvanner Aasvang, Jens-Erik Beck Jensen, Henrik Kehlet, Nicolai Bang Foss, Thomas Bandholm and Morten Tange Kristensen

    Citation: Trials 2019 20:763

    Content type: Study protocol

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  6. In the Dutch breast cancer screening program, women recalled with a BI-RADS 0 score are referred for additional imaging, while those with BI-RADS 4/5 scores are also directed to an outpatient breast clinic. Ap...

    Authors: L. M. F. H. Neeter, I. P. L. Houben, P. J. Nelemans, T. J. A. Van Nijnatten, R. M. Pijnappel, C. Frotscher, M. Osinga-de Jong, F. Sanders, T. Van Dalen, H. P. J. Raat, B. A. B. Essers, J. E. Wildberger, M. L. Smidt and M. B. I. Lobbes

    Citation: Trials 2019 20:759

    Content type: Study protocol

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  7. Esophagectomy with extended lymphadenectomy remains the mainstay of treatment for localized esophageal cancer. Currently, transthoracic and abdominal esophagectomy with cervical anastomosis (McKeown esophagect...

    Authors: Taro Oshikiri, Gosuke Takiguchi, Susumu Miura, Nobuhisa Takase, Hiroshi Hasegawa, Masashi Yamamoto, Shingo Kanaji, Kimihiro Yamashita, Yoshiko Matsuda, Takeru Matsuda, Tetsu Nakamura, Satoshi Suzuki and Yoshihiro Kakeji

    Citation: Trials 2019 20:758

    Content type: Study protocol

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  8. Social anxiety disorder (SAD) is a common disorder in adolescence associated with extensive distress and long-term impairment. Generic cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) programs for anxiety disorders have shown...

    Authors: Nanna Fensman Lassen, Esben Hougaard, Kristian Bech Arendt and Mikael Thastum

    Citation: Trials 2019 20:757

    Content type: Study protocol

    Published on:

  9. Diabetic kidney disease (DKD) is the main cause of end-stage kidney disease and has become a heavy economic and social burden due to its high prevalence and morbidity. The most effective strategy is that patie...

    Authors: De Jin, Wen-Jing Huang, Xiang Meng, Fan Yang, Qi Bao, Mei-zhen Zhang, Ya-nan Yang, Qing Ni, Feng-Mei Lian and Xiao-Lin Tong

    Citation: Trials 2019 20:756

    Content type: Study protocol

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  10. Allergic diseases in infants have dramatically increased in developed countries during the past few decades. To date, extensive research has been done on risk factors for allergies in infancy, and preventive m...

    Authors: Rie Nakamura, Nao Ishiguro, Eiji Naru, Yukiko Ishitsuka, Masato Nakade and Yoko Nezu

    Citation: Trials 2019 20:755

    Content type: Study protocol

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  11. Current international guidelines recommend the use of a daily topical exit-site antimicrobial to prevent peritoneal dialysis (PD)-related infections. Although nonantibiotic-based therapies are appealing becaus...

    Authors: Surapon Nochaiwong, Chidchanok Ruengorn, Kajohnsak Noppakun, Setthapon Panyathong, Phongsak Dandecha, Manish M. Sood, Chalermpong Saenjum, Ratanaporn Awiphan, Sasithorn Sirilun, Pajaree Mongkhon, Wilaiwan Chongruksut and Kednapa Thavorn

    Citation: Trials 2019 20:754

    Content type: Study protocol

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  12. Neoadjuvant immunotherapy targeting immune checkpoint programmed death-1 (PD-1) is under investigation in various tumour settings including non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Preclinical models demonstrate th...

    Authors: Elizabeth Ahern, Annette Cubitt, Emma Ballard, Michele W. L. Teng, William C. Dougall, Mark J. Smyth, David Godbolt, Rishendran Naidoo, Amanda Goldrick and Brett G. M. Hughes

    Citation: Trials 2019 20:753

    Content type: Study protocol

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  13. Severe burn injuries result in relevant restrictions of physical capacity as well as psychological and social integrity and require a specialized rehabilitation. There is a common agreement, among national as ...

    Authors: Hubert Neubauer, Annette Stolle, Sabine Ripper, Felix Klimitz, Hans Ziegenthaler, Mareike Strupat, Ulrich Kneser and Leila Harhaus

    Citation: Trials 2019 20:752

    Content type: Study protocol

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  14. Regorafenib is an oral multikinase inhibitor for metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) previously treated with fluoropyrimidines, irinotecan, oxaliplatin, monoclonal antibodies targeting vascular endothelial gro...

    Authors: Cheng-Jen Ma, Tsung-Kun Chang, Hsiang-Lin Tsai, Wei-Chih Su, Ching-Wen Huang, Yung-Sung Yeh, Yu-Tang Chang and Jaw-Yuan Wang

    Citation: Trials 2019 20:751

    Content type: Study protocol

    Published on:

  15. The FITNET-NHS Trial is a UK, national, trial investigating whether an online cognitive behavioural therapy program (FITNET-NHS) for treating chronic fatigue syndrome/ME in adolescents is clinically effective ...

    Authors: Emma Anderson, Daisy Gaunt, Chris Metcalfe, Manmita Rai, William Hollingworth, Nicola Mills, Lucy Beasant, Roxanne Parslow, David Kessler, John Macleod, Paul Stallard, Hans Knoop, Elise Van de Putte, Sanne Nijhof, Gijs Bleijenberg and Esther Crawley

    Citation: Trials 2019 20:750

    Content type: Update

    Published on:

    The Study protocol to this article has been published in Trials 2018 19:136

  16. Deep-brain stimulation targeting the subthalamic nucleus (STN) can be used to treat motor symptoms and dyskinesia in the advanced stages of Parkinson’s disease (PD). High-frequency stimulation (HFS) of the STN...

    Authors: Fumin Jia, Jianguo Zhang, Huimin Wang, Zhanhua Liang, Weiguo Liu, Xuelian Wang, Yiming Liu, Yi Guo, Zhipei Ling, Xiaodong Cai, Xi Wu, Jianjun Wu, Wen Lv, Xin Xu, Wenbin Zhang and Luming Li

    Citation: Trials 2019 20:749

    Content type: Study protocol

    Published on:

  17. While the efficacy of cognitive therapy (CT) has been well established for social anxiety disorder (SAD) in several randomized controlled trials, there are still large differences between trials with respect t...

    Authors: Celina Clément, Jihong Lin and Ulrich Stangier

    Citation: Trials 2019 20:748

    Content type: Study protocol

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  18. Current guidelines for the management of bronchiectasis (BE) highlight the lack of evidence to recommend mucoactive agents, such as hypertonic saline (HTS) and carbocisteine, to aid sputum removal as part of s...

    Authors: Judy Martina Bradley, Rohan Anand, Brenda O’Neill, Kathryn Ferguson, Mike Clarke, Mary Carroll, James Chalmers, Anthony De Soyza, Jamie Duckers, Adam T. Hill, Michael R. Loebinger, Fiona Copeland, Evie Gardner, Christina Campbell, Ashley Agus, Alistair McGuire…

    Citation: Trials 2019 20:747

    Content type: Study protocol

    Published on:

  19. Infants born extremely preterm are at high risk of dying or suffering from severe brain injuries. Treatment guided by monitoring of cerebral oxygenation may reduce the risk of death and neurologic complication...

    Authors: Mathias Lühr Hansen, Adelina Pellicer, Christian Gluud, Eugene Dempsey, Jonathan Mintzer, Simon Hyttel-Sorensen, Anne Marie Heuchan, Cornelia Hagmann, Gabriel Dimitriou, Gerhard Pichler, Gunnar Naulaers, Guoqiang Cheng, Ana Vilan, Jakub Tkaczyk, Karen B. Kreutzer, Monica Fumagalli…

    Citation: Trials 2019 20:746

    Content type: Update

    Published on:

    The Study protocol to this article has been published in Trials 2019 20:811

  20. This editorial introduces articles in this Special Issue, which are based on presentations given at the 2017 meeting of the Global Forum of Bioethics in Research meeting. The main themes presented at the meeti...

    Authors: Rieke van der Graaf and Phaik Yeong Cheah

    Citation: Trials 2019 20(Suppl 2):705

    Content type: Editorial

    Published on:

    This article is part of a Supplement: Volume 20 Supplement 2

  21. Typhoidal Salmonella is a major global problem affecting more than 12 million people annually. Controlled human infection models (CHIMs) in high-resource settings have had an important role in accelerating the de...

    Authors: Meriel Raymond, Malick M. Gibani, Nicholas P. J. Day and Phaik Yeong Cheah

    Citation: Trials 2019 20(Suppl 2):704

    Content type: Commentary

    Published on:

    This article is part of a Supplement: Volume 20 Supplement 2

  22. Stepped-wedge cluster randomized trials (SW-CRTs) are increasingly popular in health-related research in both high- and low-resource settings. There may be specific ethical issues that researchers face when de...

    Authors: Kaustubh Joag, Guillermo Ambrosio, Edgar Kestler, Charles Weijer, Karla Hemming and Rieke Van der Graaf

    Citation: Trials 2019 20(Suppl 2):703

    Content type: Commentary

    Published on:

    This article is part of a Supplement: Volume 20 Supplement 2

  23. Human challenge trials (HCTs) deliberately infect participants in order to test vaccines and treatments in a controlled setting, rather than enrolling individuals with natural exposure to a disease. HCTs are t...

    Authors: Ricardo Palacios and Seema K. Shah

    Citation: Trials 2019 20(Suppl 2):702

    Content type: Commentary

    Published on:

    This article is part of a Supplement: Volume 20 Supplement 2

  24. Alternative clinical trial designs and methods are increasingly being used in place of the conventional individually randomised controlled trial (RCT) in high-income and in low-income and middle-income country...

    Authors: Adrienne Hunt, Carla Saenz and Katherine Littler

    Citation: Trials 2019 20(Suppl 2):701

    Content type: Meeting report

    Published on:

    This article is part of a Supplement: Volume 20 Supplement 2

  25. Antibiotic exposure is often inadequate in critically ill patients with severe sepsis or septic shock and this is associated with worse outcomes. Despite markedly altered and rapidly changing pharmacokinetics ...

    Authors: Luca F. Roggeveen, Lucas M. Fleuren, Tingjie Guo, Patrick Thoral, Harm Jan de Grooth, Eleonora L. Swart, Thomas L. T. Klausch, Peter H. J. van der Voort, Armand R. J. Girbes, Rob J. Bosman and Paul W. G. Elbers

    Citation: Trials 2019 20:745

    Content type: Study protocol

    Published on:

  26. Breast cancer is the most common cancer and the leading cause of cancer mortality among Latinas. As more is learned about the association between mammographic breast density (MBD) and breast cancer risk, a num...

    Authors: Bhavika K. Patel, Jennifer L. Ridgeway, Karthik Ghosh, Deborah J. Rhodes, Bijan Borah, Sarah Jenkins, Vera J. Suman, Aaron Norman, Matt Jewett, Davinder Singh, Celine M. Vachon and Carmen Radecki Breitkopf

    Citation: Trials 2019 20:744

    Content type: Study protocol

    Published on:

  27. In a cluster randomised controlled trial in Mumbai slums, we will test the effects on the prevalence of violence against women and girls of community mobilisation through groups and individual volunteers. One ...

    Authors: Nayreen Daruwalla, Unnati Machchhar, Shanti Pantvaidya, Vanessa D’Souza, Lu Gram, Andrew Copas and David Osrin

    Citation: Trials 2019 20:743

    Content type: Study protocol

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  28. The aging population is associated with increased multimorbidity and polypharmacy. Older adults are at a higher risk of adverse events and reduced therapeutic response. This phenomenon is partially explained b...

    Authors: Karina Giassi, Vanessa Piccoli, Ticiana da Costa Rodrigues and Renato Gorga Bandeira de Mello

    Citation: Trials 2019 20:742

    Content type: Study protocol

    Published on:

  29. Chemotherapy after surgery for breast cancer plays a fundamental role in reducing the risk of distant and local recurrence. An increasing number of patients seek traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) during adjuv...

    Authors: Chien-Ting Liu, Yen-Hao Chen, Yu-Chuen Huang, Shih-Yu Chen and Ming-Yen Tsai

    Citation: Trials 2019 20:741

    Content type: Study protocol

    Published on:

  30. Despite their marginal benefit, about 60% of acute lower respiratory tract infections (ALRTIs) are currently treated with antibiotics in Catalonia. This study aims to evaluate the effectiveness and efficiency ...

    Authors: Rafa Ruiz, Ana Moragas, Marta Trapero-Bertran, Antoni Sisó, Anna Berenguera, Glòria Oliva, Alícia Borràs-Santos, Ana García-Sangenís, Jaume Puig-Junoy, Josep M. Cots, Rosa Morros, Toni Mora, Anna Lanau-Roig, Ramon Monfà, Amelia Troncoso, Rosa M. Abellana…

    Citation: Trials 2019 20:740

    Content type: Study protocol

    Published on:

  31. Cutaneous microcystic lymphatic malformations (CMLMs) are rare conditions in children and adults. They present as clusters of vesicles full of lymph and blood to various extents, inducing maceration, esthetic ...

    Authors: Sophie Leducq, Agnès Caille, Sébastien Barbarot, Nathalie Bénéton, Didier Bessis, Olivia Boccara, Anne-Claire Bursztejn, Christine Chiaverini, Anne Dompmartin, Catherine Droitcourt, Valérie Gissot, Dominique Goga, Laurent Guibaud, Denis Herbreteau, Anne Le Touze, Christine Léauté-Labrèze…

    Citation: Trials 2019 20:739

    Content type: Study protocol

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  32. Incisional hernias are among the most frequent complications following abdominal surgery and cause substantial morbidity, impaired health-related quality of life and costs. Despite improvements in abdominal wa...

    Authors: Patrick Heger, Manuel Feißt, Johannes Krisam, Christina Klose, Colette Dörr-Harim, Solveig Tenckhoff, Markus W. Büchler, Markus K. Diener and André L. Mihaljevic

    Citation: Trials 2019 20:738

    Content type: Study protocol

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  33. Breastfeeding provides ideal infant nutrition, conferring several health benefits to children and their mothers. Women with inverted nipples, however, face difficulties that force them to prematurely terminate...

    Authors: Mona Nabulsi, Rayan Ghanem, Marlie Abou-Jaoude and Ali Khalil

    Citation: Trials 2019 20:737

    Content type: Study protocol

    Published on:

  34. Thiazide diuretics have demonstrated favorable blood pressure lowering efficacy, but the equivalent doses of their more common agents, chlorthalidone and hydrochlorothiazide, are still unclear. Further, concer...

    Authors: Vítor Magnus Martins, Lucas Helal, Filipe Ferrari, Leonardo Grabinski Bottino, Sandra Costa Fuchs and Flávio Danni Fuchs

    Citation: Trials 2019 20:736

    Content type: Study protocol

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  35. The incidence, mortality, and prevalence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are high in China. Acute exacerbations of COPD (AECOPD) are important events in the management of COPD because they nega...

    Authors: Hailong Zhang, Jiansheng Li, Xueqing Yu, Suyun Li, Haifeng Wang, Huanrong Ruan, Yimei Si, Yang Xie and Minghang Wang

    Citation: Trials 2019 20:735

    Content type: Study protocol

    Published on:

  36. Despite a steady world-wide decline over recent decades, rates of smoking remain high in developed countries. In Japan, 30% of men and 10% of women are smokers. Based on these rates, 18.8 million (14.06 millio...

    Authors: Yuka Ozaki, Maki Komiyama, Kenji Ueshima, Hiroyasu Iso, Satoko Sakata, Ayumi Morino, Mitsuyoshi Takahara, Satoshi Noguchi, Yoshihiro Kuwabara, Yuko Takahashi and Koji Hasegawa

    Citation: Trials 2019 20:734

    Content type: Study protocol

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  37. The occurrence of postoperative cognitive deficits, especially after heart surgery, has been demonstrated in several studies. These deficits can clearly be noticed by the patients and by their close relatives ...

    Authors: Marius Butz, Jasmin El Shazly, Gebhard Sammer, Marlene Tschernatsch, Sabrina Kastaun, Mesut Yenigün, Tobias Braun, Manfred Kaps, Andreas Böning, Ulrike Puvogel, Georg Bachmann, Thomas Mengden, Markus Schönburg, Tibo Gerriets and Martin Juenemann

    Citation: Trials 2019 20:733

    Content type: Study protocol

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  38. Optimising the management of peri-operative pain and recovery following knee replacement has been identified as a patient priority. Current pain relief strategies use opiate-based analgesia; however, up to 50%...

    Authors: Ruth Knight, Lisa Poulton, Louise H. Strickland, Thomas W. Hamilton, David Beard, Jonathan Cook, Susan J. Dutton, Jose Leal, Sarah Lamb, Cushla Cooper, Karen L. Barker, David W. Murray and Hemant G. Pandit

    Citation: Trials 2019 20:732

    Content type: Study protocol

    Published on:

  39. We aimed to test whether a common set of key data items reported across high-impact neonatal clinical trials could be identified, and to quantify their completeness in routinely recorded United Kingdom neonata...

    Authors: Sena Jawad, Neena Modi, A. Toby Prevost and Chris Gale

    Citation: Trials 2019 20:731

    Content type: Review

    Published on:

  40. In patients submitted to major pulmonary resection, the postoperative length of stay is mainly influenced by the duration of air leaks and chest tube removal. The measurement of air leaks largely relies on tra...

    Authors: Giuseppe Marulli, Giovanni M. Comacchio, Mario Nosotti, Lorenzo Rosso, Paolo Mendogni, Giuseppe Natale, Luigi Andriolo, Giovanna Imbriglio, Valentina Larocca, Debora Brascia and Federico Rea

    Citation: Trials 2019 20:730

    Content type: Study protocol

    Published on:

  41. A considerable amount of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) have been published on statins and/or fibrates for diabetic retinopathy, a clinical condition associated with high social and economic burden. Adher...

    Authors: Vânia Mozetic, Letícia Leonel, Rafael Leite Pacheco, Carolina de Oliveira Cruz Latorraca, Taís Guimarães, Patricia Logullo and Rachel Riera

    Citation: Trials 2019 20:729

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  42. Delivery of behavioral interventions is complex, as the majority of interventions consist of multiple components used either simultaneously, sequentially, or both. The importance of clearly delineating deliver...

    Authors: Sarabeth Broder-Fingert, Jocelyn Kuhn, Radley Christopher Sheldrick, Andrea Chu, Lisa Fortuna, Megan Jordan, Dana Rubin and Emily Feinberg

    Citation: Trials 2019 20:728

    Content type: Study protocol

    Published on:

  43. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a major public health issue affecting approximately 4% to 7% of the Swiss population. According to current inpatient guidelines, systemic corticosteroids are imp...

    Authors: Pascal Urwyler, Maria Boesing, Kristin Abig, Marco Cattaneo, Thomas Dieterle, Andreas Zeller, Herbert Bachler, Stefan Markun, Oliver Senn, Christoph Merlo, Stefan Essig, Elke Ullmer, Jonas Rutishauser, Macé M Schuurmans and Joerg Daniel Leuppi

    Citation: Trials 2019 20:727

    Content type: Study protocol

    Published on:

  44. The Artificial Kidney Initiation in Kidney Injury (AKIKI) trial showed that a delayed renal replacement therapy (RRT) strategy for severe acute kidney injury (AKI) in critically ill patients was safe and associat...

    Authors: Stéphane Gaudry, David Hajage, Laurent Martin-Lefevre, Guillaume Louis, Sébastien Moschietto, Dimitri Titeca-Beauport, Béatrice La Combe, Bertrand Pons, Nicolas de Prost, Sébastien Besset, Alain Combes, Adrien Robine, Marion Beuzelin, Julio Badie, Guillaume Chevrel, Jean Reignier…

    Citation: Trials 2019 20:726

    Content type: Study protocol

    Published on:

  45. Tetramethylpyrazine (TMP), an active ingredient in the traditional Chinese herbal medicine Rhizoma Chuanxiong, has been used clinically for the prevention and treatment of cardiovascular disease. The benefits ...

    Authors: Yuqin Chen, Wenjun He, Haiping Ouyang, Chunli Liu, Cheng Hong, Tao Wang, Kai Yang, Wenju Lu and Jian Wang

    Citation: Trials 2019 20:725

    Content type: Study protocol

    Published on:

  46. Intensive care unit (ICU)-acquired weakness is the most important cause of failed functional outcome in survivors of critical care. Most damage occurs during the first week when patients are not cooperative en...

    Authors: Petr Waldauf, Jan Gojda, Tomáš Urban, Natália Hrušková, Barbora Blahutová, Marie Hejnová, Kateřina Jiroutková, Michal Fric, Pavel Jánský, Jana Kukulová, Francis Stephens, Kamila Řasová and František Duška

    Citation: Trials 2019 20:724

    Content type: Study protocol

    Published on:

  47. Urinary incontinence (UI) is highly prevalent in nursing and residential care homes (CHs) and profoundly impacts on residents’ dignity and quality of life. CHs predominantly use absorbent pads to contain UI ra...

    Authors: J. Booth, L. Aucott, S. Cotton, C. Goodman, S. Hagen, D. Harari, M. Lawrence, A. Lowndes, L. Macaulay, G. MacLennan, H. Mason, D. McClurg, J. Norrie, C. Norton, C. O’Dolan, D. A. Skelton…

    Citation: Trials 2019 20:723

    Content type: Study protocol

    Published on:

  48. In the Pakistani textile industry the prevalence of workplace respiratory illnesses, including byssinosis, is high. The MultiTex RCT study aims to determine the effectiveness of a multifaceted intervention pac...

    Authors: Asaad Ahmed Nafees, Sara De Matteis, Muhammad Masood Kadir, Peter Burney, David Coggon, Sean Semple and Paul Cullinan

    Citation: Trials 2019 20:722

    Content type: Study protocol

    Published on:

  49. Following publication of the original article [1], we have been notified that end note would need to be adjusted.

    Authors: Wesley de Jong, Joeri Aerts, Sabine Allard, Christian Brander, Jozefien Buyze, Eric Florence, Eric van Gorp, Guido Vanham, Lorna Leal, Beatriz Mothe, Kris Thielemans, Montse Plana, Félipe Garcia and Rob Gruters

    Citation: Trials 2019 20:721

    Content type: Correction

    Published on:

    The original article was published in Trials 2019 20:361

  50. Following publication of the original article [1], the authors notified us of a typing error in spelling Dr. Yeleuov’s name. The original publication has been corrected.

    Authors: Oral Ospanov, Galymzhan Yeleuov, Irina Kadyrova and Farida Bekmurzinova

    Citation: Trials 2019 20:716

    Content type: Correction

    Published on:

    The original article was published in Trials 2019 20:202

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