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  1. There is a growing debate on the relationship between health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and patient survival which has been going on for the last few decades. The greatest wish of clinicians is to extend ...

    Authors: Lei Wang, Liang Wang, Xuefei Song, Chang Cui, Chunyue Ma, Bing Guo and Xingjun Qin

    Citation: Trials 2019 20:600

    Content type: Study protocol

    Published on:

  2. With the substantially growing trend of the aging populations in China and the rest of the world, the number of total hip and total knee arthroplasty (THA and TKA) cases are increasing dramatically. It is impo...

    Authors: Jingyi Li, Haibei Zhu and Ren Liao

    Citation: Trials 2019 20:599

    Content type: Study protocol

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  3. The Mesothelioma and Radical Surgery Trial (MARS 2) aims to evaluate a surgical procedure by comparing chemotherapy and surgery against chemotherapy alone. The pilot study for MARS 2 evaluated the viability of...

    Authors: Clare Warnock, Karen Lord, Bethany Taylor and Angela Tod

    Citation: Trials 2019 20:598

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  4. Currently there are campaigns to raise the awareness of the need to practice physical exercise with several objectives, mainly as a preventive measure. The Pilates method is a form of therapeutic exercise for ...

    Authors: Allysiê Priscilla de Souza Cavina, Eduardo Pizzo Junior, Aryane Flauzino Machado, Taíse Mendes Biral, Carlos Marcelo Pastre and Franciele Marques Vanderlei

    Citation: Trials 2019 20:597

    Content type: Study protocol

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  5. Disorders of consciousness (DOC) after traumatic brain injury (TBI) raise the mortality of patients, restrict the rehabilitation of patients with TBI, and increase the physical and economic burden that TBI imp...

    Authors: Shilin Li, Xiangli Dong, Weiming Sun, Na Zhao, Guohua Yu and Lang Shuai

    Citation: Trials 2019 20:596

    Content type: Study protocol

    Published on:

  6. Following publication of the original article [1], we have been notified of a few mistakes in the “Sample size calculations” section, second paragraph.

    Authors: Rachel B. van Oostveen, Alberto Romero-Palacios, Richard Whitlock, Shun Fu Lee, Stuart Connolly, Alex Carignan, C. David Mazer, Mark Loeb and Dominik Mertz

    Citation: Trials 2019 20:595

    Content type: Correction

    Published on:

    The original article was published in Trials 2018 19:688

  7. Infections are common in nursing home (NH) residents with advanced dementia but are often managed inappropriately. Antimicrobials are extensively prescribed, but frequently with insufficient evidence to suppor...

    Authors: Andrea J. Loizeau, Erika M. C. D’Agata, Michele L. Shaffer, Laura C. Hanson, Ruth A. Anderson, Timothy Tsai, Daniel A. Habtemariam, Elaine H. Bergman, Ruth P. Carroll, Simon M. Cohen, Erin M. E. Scott, Erin Stevens, Jeremy D. Whyman, Elizabeth H. Bennert and Susan L. Mitchell

    Citation: Trials 2019 20:594

    Content type: Study protocol

    Published on:

  8. One of the top three research priorities for the UK clinical trial community is to address the gap in evidence-based approaches to improving participant retention in randomised trials. Despite this, there is l...

    Authors: Dan Brunsdon, Linda Biesty, Peter Brocklehurst, Valerie Brueton, Declan Devane, Jim Elliott, Sandra Galvin, Carrol Gamble, Heidi Gardner, Patricia Healy, Kerenza Hood, Joan Jordan, Doris Lanz, Beccy Maeso, Amanda Roberts, Imogen Skene…

    Citation: Trials 2019 20:593

    Content type: Methodology

    Published on:

  9. Patients with haematological malignancies often develop thrombocytopenia as a consequence of either their disease or its treatment. Platelet transfusions are commonly given to raise a low platelet count and re...

    Authors: Lise J. Estcourt, Zoe McQuilten, Gillian Powter, Claire Dyer, Eleanor Curnow, Erica M. Wood and Simon J. Stanworth

    Citation: Trials 2019 20:592

    Content type: Study protocol

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  10. Older people are frequent emergency department (ED) users who present with complex issues that are linked to poorer health outcomes following the index visit, often have increased ED length of stay, and tend t...

    Authors: Marica Cassarino, Katie Robinson, Íde O’Shaughnessy, Eimear Smalle, Stephen White, Collette Devlin, Rosie Quinn, Dominic Trépel, Fiona Boland, Marie E. Ward, Rosa McNamara, Margaret O’Connor, Gerard McCarthy, Damien Ryan and Rose Galvin

    Citation: Trials 2019 20:591

    Content type: Study protocol

    Published on:

  11. Recent experimental research has suggested that spinal manipulative therapy (SMT) may reduce pain through modulation of the ascending pain signals and/or the central pain-regulating mechanisms. People with per...

    Authors: Anders Galaasen Bakken, Iben Axén, Andreas Eklund and Søren O’Neill

    Citation: Trials 2019 20:590

    Content type: Study protocol

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  12. Actinic keratoses (AK) are common skin lesions that can progress to invasive squamous cell carcinoma of the skin. A variety of lesion- or field-targeted treatment options exist and their efficacy has been demo...

    Authors: Markus V. Heppt, Theresa Steeb, Lutz Schmitz, Claus Garbe, Lars E. French, Ulrike Leiter and Carola Berking

    Citation: Trials 2019 20:589

    Content type: Study protocol

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  13. Neuropathic pain is a common pain condition that has a major negative impact on health-related quality of life. However, despite decades of research, it remains difficult to treat neuropathic pain. Lacosamide ...

    Authors: Malin E. Carmland, Melissa Kreutzfeldt, Jakob V. Holbech, Niels T. Andersen, Troels S. Jensen, Flemming W. Bach, Søren H. Sindrup and Nanna B. Finnerup

    Citation: Trials 2019 20:588

    Content type: Study protocol

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  14. In critically ill patients receiving invasive mechanical ventilation (MV), research supports the use of daily screening to identify patients who are ready to undergo a spontaneous breathing trial (SBT) followe...

    Authors: K. E. A. Burns, Leena Rizvi, Deborah J. Cook, Andrew J. E. Seely, Bram Rochwerg, Francois Lamontagne, John W. Devlin, Peter Dodek, Michael Mayette, Maged Tanios, Audrey Gouskos, Phyllis Kay, Susan Mitchell, Kenneth C. Kiedrowski and Nicholas S. Hill

    Citation: Trials 2019 20:587

    Content type: Study protocol

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  15. Patellofemoral pain (PFP) often affects young women, and the etiology is multifactorial and poorly understood. Conservative intervention has been focused on risk factors or aggravating factors and is composed ...

    Authors: Natália Camin Silva, Matheus de Castro Silva, Morisa Garcia Guimarães, Manoela Beatriz de Oliveira Nascimento and Lilian Ramiro Felicio

    Citation: Trials 2019 20:586

    Content type: Study protocol

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  16. Nutritional support is essential in the care of critically ill children since malnutrition in this population is associated with increased morbidity and mortality. Injury in patients admitted to pediatric inte...

    Authors: Reyes Fernández, Javier Urbano, Ángel Carrillo, Ana Vivanco, María José Solana, Corsino Rey and Jesús López-Herce

    Citation: Trials 2019 20:585

    Content type: Study protocol

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  17. High salt intake is a risk factor for hypertension and cardiovascular disease. Reducing salt intake has been shown to reduce blood pressure. Despite population-level interventions, including product reformulat...

    Authors: Sarah Payne Riches, Carmen Piernas, Paul Aveyard, James P. Sheppard, Mike Rayner and Susan A. Jebb

    Citation: Trials 2019 20:584

    Content type: Study protocol

    Published on:

  18. Depression is a major cause of chronic disability throughout the world and an important cardiovascular risk factor, increasing the relative risk of coronary artery disease as well as rates of cardiovascular mo...

    Authors: Catarina Magalhães Porto, Tatiana de Paula Santana da Silva and Everton Botelho Sougey

    Citation: Trials 2019 20:583

    Content type: Study protocol

    Published on:

    The Correction to this article has been published in Trials 2019 20:628

  19. Intraoperative hypotension is associated with increased morbidity and mortality. Current treatment is mostly reactive. The Hypotension Prediction Index (HPI) algorithm is able to predict hypotension minutes be...

    Authors: M. Wijnberge, J. Schenk, L. E. Terwindt, M. P. Mulder, M. W. Hollmann, A. P. Vlaar, D. P. Veelo and B. F. Geerts

    Citation: Trials 2019 20:582

    Content type: Study protocol

    Published on:

  20. The World Health Organization recommended (in 2010) universal testing for suspected malaria, due to some fundamental changes in malaria trends such as the declining incidence of malaria in high-burden countrie...

    Authors: Ugwu I. Omale, Benedict N. Azuogu, Chihurumnanya Alo, Ugochukwu C. Madubueze, Onyinyechukwu U. Oka, Kingsley C. Okeke, Ifeyinwa M. Okafor, Rowland Utulu, Uduak E. Akpan, Chijioke V. Iloke, Anthonia O. Nnubia, Ifeyinwa I. Eze, Ogechukwu C. Anene, Chukwuka R. Nnabu and Deborah C. Ibemesi

    Citation: Trials 2019 20:581

    Content type: Study protocol

    Published on:

  21. Recently factors in the relationship between gut microbiota, obesity, diabetes and the metabolic syndrome have been suggested in the development and progression of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). In this ...

    Authors: Amanda Souza Silva-Sperb, Helena Abadie Moraes, Bruna Concheski de Moura, Bruna Cherubini Alves, Juliana Paula Bruch-Bertani, Vittoria Zambon Azevedo and Valesca Dall’Alba

    Citation: Trials 2019 20:580

    Content type: Study protocol

    Published on:

  22. Few community urologists offer cancer patients the opportunity to participate in cancer clinical trials, despite national guidelines that recommend it, depriving an estimated 260,000 urological cancer patients...

    Authors: Shellie Ellis, Mugur Geana, Tomas Griebling, Charles McWilliams, Jessie Gills, Kelly Stratton, Christine Mackay, Ariel Shifter, Andrew Zganjar and Brantley Thrasher

    Citation: Trials 2019 20:578

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  23. One of the most challenging parts of running clinical trials is recruiting enough participants. Our objective was to determine which recruitment strategies were effective in reaching specific subgroups.

    Authors: Sravya Kakumanu, Braden J. Manns, Sophia Tran, Terry Saunders-Smith, Brenda R. Hemmelgarn, Marcello Tonelli, Ross Tsuyuki, Noah Ivers, Danielle Southern, Jeff Bakal and David J. T. Campbell

    Citation: Trials 2019 20:577

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  24. Colorectal cancer is the fourth most commonly diagnosed cancer in the United States. Approximately 3–10% of the population has an increased risk for colorectal cancer due to family history and warrants more fr...

    Authors: Karen M. Goldstein, Deborah A. Fisher, R. Ryanne Wu, Lori A. Orlando, Cynthia J. Coffman, Janet M. Grubber, Tejinder Rakhra-Burris, Virginia Wang, Maren T. Scheuner, Nina Sperber, Santanu K. Datta, Richard E. Nelson, Elizabeth Strawbridge, Dawn Provenzale, Elizabeth R. Hauser and Corrine I. Voils

    Citation: Trials 2019 20:576

    Content type: Study protocol

    Published on:

  25. Dizziness is a common complaint, and the symptom often persists, together with additional complaints. A treatment combining Vestibular Rehabilitation (VR) and Cognitive Behaviour Therapy (CBT) is suggested. Ho...

    Authors: Lene Kristiansen, L. H. Magnussen, K. T. Wilhelmsen, S. Mæland, S. H. G. Nordahl, R. Clendaniel, A. Hovland and B. Juul-Kristensen

    Citation: Trials 2019 20:575

    Content type: Study protocol

    Published on:

  26. Childhood asthma is a common condition. Currently there is no validated objective test which can be used to guide asthma treatment in children. This study tests the hypothesis that the addition of fractional e...

    Authors: S. Turner, S. C. Cotton, C. D. Emele, R. Thomas, S. Fielding, E. A. Gaillard, J. C. de Jongste, H. Morgan, A. R. Neilson, J. Norrie, M. Pijnenburg, D. Price and M. Thomas

    Citation: Trials 2019 20:573

    Content type: Study protocol

    Published on:

  27. Master protocols, classified as basket trials, umbrella trials, and platform trials, are novel designs that investigate multiple hypotheses through concurrent sub-studies (e.g., multiple treatments or populati...

    Authors: Jay J. H Park, Ellie Siden, Michael J. Zoratti, Louis Dron, Ofir Harari, Joel Singer, Richard T. Lester, Kristian Thorlund and Edward J. Mills

    Citation: Trials 2019 20:572

    Content type: Review

    Published on:

  28. Internal pilots provide useful information which can help to optimise the running of the main trial. Although some recommendations exist in the literature for the design of internal pilots, little is known abo...

    Authors: Anna Rosala-Hallas, Carrol Gamble, Jane Blazeby and Paula R. Williamson

    Citation: Trials 2019 20:571

    Content type: Methodology

    Published on:

  29. Surgeon and patient treatment preferences are important threats to the internal and external validity of surgical trials such as PROFHER, which compared surgical versus non-surgical treatment for displaced fra...

    Authors: Ada Keding, Helen Handoll, Stephen Brealey, Laura Jefferson, Catherine Hewitt, Belen Corbacho, David Torgerson and Amar Rangan

    Citation: Trials 2019 20:570

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  30. Low health-related physical fitness in college students is a risk factor for future development of cardiovascular diseases at later stages in life, but appropriate exercise is one of the main determinant facto...

    Authors: Fang Zhao, Shanshan Sun, Jian Xiong and Guohua Zheng

    Citation: Trials 2019 20:569

    Content type: Study protocol

    Published on:

  31. Conduct, anxiety, and depressive disorders account for over 75% of the adolescent mental health burden globally. The current protocol will test a low-intensity problem-solving intervention for school-going ado...

    Authors: Rachana Parikh, Daniel Michelson, Kanika Malik, Sachin Shinde, Helen A. Weiss, Adriaan Hoogendoorn, Jeroen Ruwaard, Madhuri Krishna, Rhea Sharma, Bhargav Bhat, Rooplata Sahu, Sonal Mathur, Paulomi Sudhir, Michael King, Pim Cuijpers, Bruce F. Chorpita…

    Citation: Trials 2019 20:568

    Content type: Study protocol

    Published on:

  32. Currently, there is limited evidence to guide intervention and service delivery coordination for youth who suffer a concussion and subsequently experience persistent post-concussive symptoms (PCS) (Lumba-Brown...

    Authors: Carolyn A. McCarty, Douglas Zatzick, Teah Hoopes, Katelyn Payne, Rebecca Parrish and Frederick P. Rivara

    Citation: Trials 2019 20:567

    Content type: Study protocol

    Published on:

  33. Patient-reported outcome measures (PROMs) are now frequently used in randomised controlled trials (RCTs) as primary endpoints. RCTs are longitudinal, and many have a baseline (PRE) assessment of the outcome an...

    Authors: Stephen J. Walters, Richard M. Jacques, Inês Bonacho dos Anjos Henriques-Cadby, Jane Candlish, Nikki Totton and Mica Teo Shu Xian

    Citation: Trials 2019 20:566

    Content type: Methodology

    Published on:

    The Correction to this article has been published in Trials 2019 20:611

  34. There are limited data reporting the outcome of patients with non-operatively managed medial malleolus fractures compared to those treated surgically in the presence of fibular stabilisation for unstable fract...

    Authors: Thomas H. Carter, William M. Oliver, Catriona Graham, Andrew D. Duckworth and Timothy O. White

    Citation: Trials 2019 20:565

    Content type: Study protocol

    Published on:

  35. Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is one of the most common endocrine diseases for women. Acupuncture is widely used for the infertile female because of it is non-invasive and has fewer side effects, but the po...

    Authors: Qiao Wang, Haiping Deng, Ke Cheng, Zouqin Huang, Xiuqi Yin, Yichen Zhou, Yiqin Yang, Weidong Shen, Ling Zhao and Xueyong Shen

    Citation: Trials 2019 20:564

    Content type: Study protocol

    Published on:

  36. The increasing use of implantable cardiac monitors (ICMs) allows early documentation of asymptomatic cardiac arrhythmias that would previously have gone unnoticed. The addition of remote monitoring to cardiac ...

    Authors: Christian Jons, Peter Sogaard, Steffen Behrens, Jürgen Schrader, Sascha Mrosk and Poul Erik Bloch Thomsen

    Citation: Trials 2019 20:563

    Content type: Study protocol

    Published on:

  37. Interval training in deep water running (DWR-IT) is a training method to improve cardiovascular fitness, functional health, and quality of life and to help control body weight. Its main advantages are the redu...

    Authors: Bruna Pianna, Bianca Christianini Moreno, Caroline Aquino de Souza, Thais Fernanda Bôscoa, Guilherme Eleutério Alcalde, Silvia Regina Barrile, Camila Gimenes, Bruno Martinelli, Antonio Roberto Zamunér, Bruna Varanda Pessoa-Santos and Eduardo Aguilar Arca

    Citation: Trials 2019 20:562

    Content type: Study protocol

    Published on:

  38. Critically ill patients lose up to 2% of muscle mass per day. We assessed the feasibility of administering a leucine-enriched essential amino acid (L-EAA) supplement to mechanically ventilated trauma patients ...

    Authors: L. Wandrag, S. J. Brett, G. S. Frost, M. To, E. Alves Loubo, N. C. Jackson, A. M. Umpleby, V. Bountziouka and M. Hickson

    Citation: Trials 2019 20:561

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  39. Myocardial damage in patients undergoing cardiac surgery increases both morbidity and mortality. Different protective strategies dealing with either preconditioning or postconditioning or assessing a single as...

    Authors: Pascal Chiari, Michel Durand, Olivier Desebbe, Marc-Olivier Fischer, Diane Lena-Quintard, Jean-Charles Palao, Catherine Mercier, Géraldine Samson, Yvonne Varillon, Matteo Pozzi, Nathan Mewton, Delphine Maucort-Boulch, Michel Ovize and Jean-Luc Fellahi

    Citation: Trials 2019 20:560

    Content type: Study protocol

    Published on:

  40. Keeping a certain level of physical activity has beneficial effects on the body itself but also, surprisingly, on cognition: specifically, physical high-intensity intermittent aerobic exercise (HIE) can show i...

    Authors: Dalila Burin, Noriki Yamaya, Rie Ogitsu and Ryuta Kawashima

    Citation: Trials 2019 20:559

    Content type: Study protocol

    Published on:

  41. Within the field of plastic surgery, free tissue transfer is common practice for knee and lower leg defects. Usually, after such free flap reconstruction, patients undergo a dangling protocol in the postoperat...

    Authors: David D. Krijgh, Teun Teunis, Pascal P. A. Schellekens, Marc A. M. Mureau, Antonius J. M. Luijsterburg, Tallechien M. T. Tempelman, Eva S. J. van der Beek, Wiesje Maarse and J. Henk Coert

    Citation: Trials 2019 20:558

    Content type: Study protocol

    Published on:

  42. Following publication of the original article [1], it has been brought to our attention that an error was slipped into the article’s title.

    Authors: Marion Henderson, Anja Wittkowski, Emma McIntosh, Alex McConnachie, Katie Buston, Philip Wilson, Rachel Calam, Helen Minnis, Lucy Thompson, John O’Dowd, James Law, Elizabeth McGee and Daniel Wight

    Citation: Trials 2019 20:557

    Content type: Correction

    Published on:

    The original article was published in Trials 2019 20:499

  43. Tobacco smoking is a highly prevalent, addictive behaviour and a key public health priority. However available cessation therapies have low quit and high relapse rates, indicating an urgent need for more effec...

    Authors: Lauren Arancini, Chiara C. Bortolasci, Seetal Dodd, Olivia M. Dean and Michael Berk

    Citation: Trials 2019 20:555

    Content type: Study protocol

    Published on:

  44. Hypertension is a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD), yet treatment and control rates for hypertension are very low in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). Lack of effective referral netwo...

    Authors: Tim Mercer, Benson Njuguna, Gerald S. Bloomfield, Jonathan Dick, Eric Finkelstein, Jemima Kamano, Ann Mwangi, Violet Naanyu, Sonak D. Pastakia, Thomas W. Valente, Rajesh Vedanthan and Constantine Akwanalo

    Citation: Trials 2019 20:554

    Content type: Study protocol

    Published on:

  45. Adverse events (AEs) in clinical trials may be reported in multiple sources. Different methods for reporting adverse events across trials or across sources for a single trial may produce inconsistent informati...

    Authors: Evan Mayo-Wilson, Nicole Fusco, Hwanhee Hong, Tianjing Li, Joseph K. Canner and Kay Dickersin

    Citation: Trials 2019 20:553

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  46. Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is an intermediate state between normal aging and Alzheimer’s disease, which is the world’s most common form of dementia. It is important to identify early and easily available ...

    Authors: Jae-Hong Kim, Myoung-Rae Cho, Gwang-Cheon Park and Jeong-Soon Lee

    Citation: Trials 2019 20:551

    Content type: Study protocol

    Published on:

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