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  1. Drug resistance in China is becoming a more and more serious issue. Infection by drug-resistant bacteria has become a major disease that seriously threatens the health of Chinese people and affects national me...

    Authors: Dong Deng, Zhenyi Chen, Liyang Jia, Jianhong Bu, Miaoqing Ye, Lihua Sun, Yun Gen, Wen Zhang, Gang Chen and Bangjiang Fang

    Citation: Trials 2019 20:817

    Content type: Study protocol

    Published on:

  2. Endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration (EUS-FNA) was developed with the aim of further improving the diagnostic performance of endoscopic ultrasound. Although novel puncture needles have been spec...

    Authors: Masahiro Itonaga, Satoru Yasukawa, Toshio Shimokawa, Mamoru Takenaka, Nobuyasu Fukutake, Takeshi Ogura, Junichi Sakagami, Hideyuki Shiomi, Yasushi Okura, Osamu Inatomi, Hisakazu Matsumoto, Akira Kurita, Azumi Suzuki, Kiyohito Tanaka and Masayuki Kitano

    Citation: Trials 2019 20:816

    Content type: Study protocol

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  3. People with dementia progressively lose cognitive and functional abilities. Interventions promoting exercise and activity may slow decline. We developed a novel intervention to promote activity and independenc...

    Authors: Rupinder K. Bajwa, Sarah E. Goldberg, Veronika Van der Wardt, Clare Burgon, Claudio Di Lorito, Maureen Godfrey, Marianne Dunlop, Pip Logan, Tahir Masud, John Gladman, Helen Smith, Vicky Hood-Moore, Vicky Booth, Roshan Das Nair, Kristian Pollock, Kavita Vedhara…

    Citation: Trials 2019 20:815

    Content type: Study protocol

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  4. Psychological distress, defined as depression, anxiety and perceived stress, during pregnancy is common, with 15–25% of women experiencing clinically significant levels of such distress. Despite the far-reachi...

    Authors: Katherine S. Bright, Muhammad Kashif Mughal, Abdul Wajid, Marie Lane-Smith, Lindsay Murray, Nicola Roy, Sander Veldhuyzen Van Zanten, Deborah A. Mcneil, Scott Stuart and Dawn Kingston

    Citation: Trials 2019 20:814

    Content type: Study protocol

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  5. Vestibular migraine (VM) is the most frequent cause of recurrent spontaneous attacks of vertigo causally related to migraine. The objective of the Prophylactic treatment of vestibular migraine with metoprolol ...

    Authors: Otmar Bayer, Christine Adrion, Amani Al Tawil, Ulrich Mansmann and Michael Strupp

    Citation: Trials 2019 20:813

    Content type: Research

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  6. Low balance confidence is a prevalent yet overlooked issue among people who use lower limb prostheses (LLP) that can diminish community integration and quality of life. There is a critical need to develop reha...

    Authors: McKenzie O. Bourque, Kristin L. Schneider, John E. Calamari, Christopher Reddin, Aaron Stachowiak, Matthew J. Major, Chad Duncan, Ranjini Muthukrishnan and Noah J. Rosenblatt

    Citation: Trials 2019 20:812

    Content type: Study protocol

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  7. Cerebral oxygenation monitoring may reduce the risk of death and neurologic complications in extremely preterm infants, but no such effects have yet been demonstrated in preterm infants in sufficiently powered...

    Authors: Mathias Lühr Hansen, Adelina Pellicer, Christian Gluud, Eugene Dempsey, Jonathan Mintzer, Simon Hyttel-Sørensen, Anne Marie Heuchan, Cornelia Hagmann, Ebru Ergenekon, Gabriel Dimitriou, Gerhard Pichler, Gunnar Naulaers, Guoqiang Cheng, Hercilia Guimarães, Jakub Tkaczyk, Karen B. Kreutzer…

    Citation: Trials 2019 20:811

    Content type: Study protocol

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    The Update to this article has been published in Trials 2019 20:746

  8. Acupuncture, as an important component of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), has been widely applied in the treatment of chronic insomnia in China, while there is no clinical study related to its therapeutic ...

    Authors: Chengyong Liu, Shiyu Zheng, Wenzhong Wu, Xiaoqiu Wang, Shan Qin, Yanan Zhao, Hanqing Xi and Qingyun Wan

    Citation: Trials 2019 20:810

    Content type: Study protocol

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  9. Nurses’ recognition of clinical deterioration is crucial for patient survival. Evidence for the effectiveness of modified early warning scores (MEWS) is derived from large observation studies in developed coun...

    Authors: Una Kyriacos, Debora Burger and Sue Jordan

    Citation: Trials 2019 20:809

    Content type: Research

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  10. Home parenteral nutrition (HPN) is a life-preserving therapy for patients with chronic intestinal failure (CIF) indicated for patients who cannot achieve their nutritional requirements by enteral intake. Intra...

    Authors: Stanislaw Klek, Cécile Chambrier, Sheldon C. Cooper, Simon Gabe, Marek Kunecki, Loris Pironi, Farooq Rahman, Jacek Sobocki, Kinga Szczepanek, Geert Wanten, Nicole Lincke, Bernhard Glotzbach and Alastair Forbes

    Citation: Trials 2019 20:808

    Content type: Study protocol

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  11. HIV-related stigma significantly impacts HIV care engagement, including in prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV (PMTCT) programs. Maisha is a stigma-based counseling intervention delivered during the...

    Authors: Melissa H. Watt, Elizabeth T. Knippler, Linda Minja, Godfrey Kisigo, Brandon A. Knettel, James S. Ngocho, Jenny Renju, Haika Osaki, Rimel Mwamba, Jane J. Rogathi and Blandina T. Mmbaga

    Citation: Trials 2019 20:807

    Content type: Study protocol

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  12. The course of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) includes a 10–20-year preclinical period with progressive accumulation of amyloid β (Aβ) plaques and neurofibrillary tangles in the absence of symptomatic cognitive or fu...

    Authors: Daniela C. Moga, Brooke F. Beech, Erin L. Abner, Frederick A. Schmitt, Riham H. El Khouli, Ashley I. Martinez, Lynne Eckmann, Mark Huffmyer, Rosmy George and Gregory A. Jicha

    Citation: Trials 2019 20:806

    Content type: Study protocol

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  13. Persistent pain can lead to incapacitation requiring long-term pharmacological treatment. Up to 82% of chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients undergoing hemodialysis (HD) have chronic pain and most do not respo...

    Authors: Artur Quintiliano, Tayanne Oehmen, Gianna Mastroianni Kirsztajn and Rodrigo Pegado

    Citation: Trials 2019 20:805

    Content type: Study protocol

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  14. Although adverse event (AE) monitoring in trials focusses on medical events, social outcomes may be important in public or social care trials. We describe our approach to reporting and categorising medical and...

    Authors: Gwenllian Moody, Katy Addison, Rebecca Cannings-John, Julia Sanders, Carolyn Wallace and Michael Robling

    Citation: Trials 2019 20:804

    Content type: Methodology

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  15. There is a lack of prospective studies comparing Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) and one-anastomosis gastric bypass (OAGB). Also, the effects of bariatric surgery and weight loss need a deeper understanding th...

    Authors: Tuure Saarinen, Sanna Meriläinen, Vesa Koivukangas, Kirsi Hannele Pietiläinen and Anne Juuti

    Citation: Trials 2019 20:803

    Content type: Study protocol

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  16. Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a common chronic autoimmune disease that seriously affects the quality of life of patients because of damage to joints. Presently, RA is mainly treated with disease-modifying antir...

    Authors: Lianyu Zhao, Meilin Li, Yanping Xu, Lijuan Liu, Mingying Zhang and Guangxing Chen

    Citation: Trials 2019 20:801

    Content type: Study protocol

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  17. More than a quarter of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) are prematurely discontinued, mostly due to poor recruitment of patients. In this study, we systematically compared RCTs discontinued or revised for p...

    Authors: Matthias Briel, Benjamin Speich, Erik von Elm and Viktoria Gloy

    Citation: Trials 2019 20:800

    Content type: Research

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  18. A prediabetic state is a risk factor for type 2 diabetes. There are no approved drugs to manage prediabetes. Among the supplements routinely used by individuals, vitamin D and omega-3 have been studied to redu...

    Authors: Masoumeh Rajabi-Naeeni, Mahrokh Dolatian, Mostafa Qorbani and Amir Abbas Vaezi

    Citation: Trials 2019 20:799

    Content type: Study protocol

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  19. Men in sub-Saharan Africa are less likely than women to get tested for HIV, less likely to present for treatment, less likely to be maintained in treatment, more likely to have detectable viral load, more like...

    Authors: Heidi van Rooyen, Tawanda Makusha, Phillip Joseph, Thulani Ngubane, Michal Kulich, Michael Sweat and Thomas Coates

    Citation: Trials 2019 20:798

    Content type: Study protocol

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  20. An incentive spirometer (IS) is a mechanical device that promotes lung expansion. It is commonly used to prevent postoperative lung atelectasis and decrease pulmonary complications after cardiac, lung, or abdo...

    Authors: Shao-Kai Sum, Ya-Chuan Peng, Shun-Ying Yin, Pin-Fu Huang, Yao-Chang Wang, Tzu-Ping Chen, Heng-Hsin Tung and Chi-Hsiao Yeh

    Citation: Trials 2019 20:797

    Content type: Research

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  21. In persons with type 1 diabetes (T1D), hypoglycemia is the major limiting factor in achieving optimal glycemic control. All persons with T1D are at risk for hypoglycemia (blood glucose level < 70 mg/dl), which...

    Authors: Pamela Martyn-Nemeth, Jennifer Duffecy, Laurie Quinn, Chang Park, Dan Mihailescu and Sue Penckofer

    Citation: Trials 2019 20:796

    Content type: Study protocol

    Published on:

  22. Micronutrient deficiencies including selenium (Se) are widespread in Malawi and potentially underlie a substantial disease burden, particularly among poorer and marginalised populations. Concentrations of Se i...

    Authors: Edward J. M. Joy, Alexander A. Kalimbira, Dawd Gashu, Elaine L. Ferguson, Joanna Sturgess, Alan D. Dangour, Leonard Banda, Gabriella Chiutsi-Phiri, Elizabeth H. Bailey, Simon C. Langley-Evans, R. Murray Lark, Kate Millar, Scott D. Young, Limbanazo Matandika, Joseph Mfutso-Bengo, John C. Phuka…

    Citation: Trials 2019 20:795

    Content type: Study protocol

    Published on:

  23. Despite the benefits highlighted by motor interventions based on virtual reality for children with Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD), there are still doubts as to whether these are greater than those o...

    Authors: Jorge Lopes Cavalcante Neto, Bert Steenbergen and Eloisa Tudella

    Citation: Trials 2019 20:794

    Content type: Study protocol

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  24. Excessive student anxiety is a common problem that severely impairs short- and long-term academic functioning and increases teacher burden. Reducing student anxiety has been associated with improvement in educ...

    Authors: Golda S. Ginsburg, Jeffrey E. Pella, Kate Piselli and Grace Chan

    Citation: Trials 2019 20:792

    Content type: Study protocol

    Published on:

  25. It seems that lumen-apposing metal stents (LAMS) are displacing plastic stents in the therapy of pancreatic-fluid collection in walled-off necrosis (WON). To date, there is no quality of evidence to recommend ...

    Authors: Joan B. Gornals, Manuel Perez-Miranda, Enrique Vazquez-Sequeiros, Juan Vila, José M. Esteban, Ferran Gonzalez-Huix, Carlos Guarner-Argente, Andres Sanchez-Yague, Alvaro Teran, Francesc Bas-Cutrina, Carlos De La Serna, Ana Garcia De Paredes, Raquel Ballester, Julio Velasquez-Rodriguez, Silvia Salord, Cristian Tebe…

    Citation: Trials 2019 20:791

    Content type: Study protocol

    Published on:

  26. Cardiac surgery involving cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) is known to be associated with a transient postoperative immunosuppression. When severe and persistent, this immune dysfunction predisposes patients to in...

    Authors: Wen-ting Chen, Jin-feng Wei, Lan Wang, Deng-wen Zhang, Wei Tang, Jian Wang, Yue Yong, Jing Wang, Ya-lan Zhou, Lan Yuan, Guo-qiang Fu, Sheng Wang and Jian-gang Song

    Citation: Trials 2019 20:789

    Content type: Study protocol

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  27. Screening substantially reduces cervical cancer incidence and mortality. More than half of invasive cervical cancers are attributable to infrequent screening or not screening at all. The current study, My Body...

    Authors: Lisa P. Spees, Andrea C. Des Marais, Stephanie B. Wheeler, Michael G. Hudgens, Sarah Doughty, Noel T. Brewer and Jennifer S. Smith

    Citation: Trials 2019 20:788

    Content type: Study protocol

    Published on:

  28. High-protein diets and total diet replacements are becoming increasingly popular for weight regulation; however, further research is needed to elucidate their impact on the physiology of body weight regulation...

    Authors: Camila L. P. Oliveira, Normand G. Boulé, Arya M. Sharma, Sarah Elliott, Mario Siervo, Sunita Ghosh, Aloys Berg and Carla M. Prado

    Citation: Trials 2019 20:787

    Content type: Study protocol

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  29. Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) rarely remits over time, and if left untreated, leads to significant distress, functional impairment, and increased health care costs. Fortunately, effective evidence-based...

    Authors: Anouk L. Grubaugh, Ursula S. Myers, Stephanie M. Keller, Bethany C. Wangelin, Brian E. Lozano and Peter W. Tuerk

    Citation: Trials 2019 20:786

    Content type: Study protocol

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  30. People with migraine often experience disability with serious consequences for their social life and work productivity. The pharmacological prophylactic management of migraine is effective in reducing migraine...

    Authors: Andreas Leonard Amons, Rene Franciscus Castien, Johannes C. van der Wouden, Willem De Hertogh, Joost Dekker and Henriëtte Eveline van der Horst

    Citation: Trials 2019 20:785

    Content type: Study protocol

    Published on:

  31. There is a high prevalence of pain and post-traumatic symptoms among refugees and feasible interventions to manage these are needed. However, knowledge about the effect of physiotherapy and psychological group...

    Authors: Wegdan Hasha, Lars T. Fadnes, Jannicke Igland, Rolf Vårdal, Line Merete Giusti, Elisabeth Marie Strømme, Jasmin Haj-Younes, Unni Heltne, Bernadette N. Kumar and Esperanza Diaz

    Citation: Trials 2019 20:784

    Content type: Study protocol

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  32. Febrile urinary tract infection (UTI) is common in infants and needs to be diagnosed quickly. However, the symptoms are non-specific, and diagnosis can only be confirmed after high quality urinalysis. The Amer...

    Authors: D. Demonchy, C. Ciais, E. Fontas, E. Berard, J. Bréaud, P. S. Rohrlich, F. Dubos, C. Fortier, J. Desmontils, A. L. Hérisse, D. Donzeau, H. Haas and A. Tran

    Citation: Trials 2019 20:783

    Content type: Study protocol

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  33. Advancements in virtual reality (VR) technology have resulted in its expansion into health care. Preliminary studies have found VR to be effective as an adjunct to anesthesia to reduce pain and anxiety for pat...

    Authors: Adeel Faruki, Thy Nguyen, Samantha Proeschel, Nadav Levy, Jessica Yu, Victoria Ip, Ariel Mueller, Valerie Banner-Goodspeed and Brian O’Gara

    Citation: Trials 2019 20:782

    Content type: Study protocol

    Published on:

  34. The current treatment paradigm for type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D) typically involves use of multiple medications to lower glucose levels in hope of reducing long-term complications. However, such treatment doe...

    Authors: Cody Durrer, Sean McKelvey, Joel Singer, Alan M. Batterham, James D. Johnson, Jay Wortman and Jonathan P. Little

    Citation: Trials 2019 20:781

    Content type: Study protocol

    Published on:

  35. There is scientific evidence suggesting that app-based interventions targeted to increase the level of physical activity might be effective, although multicomponent interventions appear to be more effective th...

    Authors: Maria do Socorro Morais Pereira Simões, Bárbara de Barros Gonze, Neli Leite Proença, Vinicius Tonon Lauria, Vinícius Demarchi Silva Terra, Ricardo da Costa Padovani and Victor Zuniga Dourado

    Citation: Trials 2019 20:780

    Content type: Study protocol

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  36. Building capacity in research funding organizations to support the conduct of pragmatic clinical trials is an essential component of advancing biomedical and public health research. To date, efforts to increas...

    Authors: Wynne E. Norton, Merrick Zwarenstein, Susan Czajkowski, Elisabeth Kato, Ann O’Mara, Nonniekaye Shelburne, David A. Chambers and Kirsty Loudon

    Citation: Trials 2019 20:779

    Content type: Commentary

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  37. Low back pain is a common symptom and continuous or recurrent pain results in chronic low back pain (CLBP). While many patients with CLBP have tried various treatments, complementary and alternative medicine i...

    Authors: Won-Suk Sung, Sae-Rom Jeon, Ye-Jin Hong, Tae-Hun Kim, Seungwon Shin, Hyun-Jong Lee, Byung-Kwan Seo, Yeon-Cheol Park, Eun-Jung Kim and Dong-Woo Nam

    Citation: Trials 2019 20:778

    Content type: Study protocol

    Published on:

  38. Nutrition plays a major role in intensive care unit (ICU) treatment, influencing ICU length of stay and patient’s survival. If preferable enteral nutrition administration is not feasible, ESPEN and ASPEN guide...

    Authors: Paweł Piwowarczyk, Paweł Kutnik, Michał Borys, Elżbieta Rypulak, Beata Potręć-Studzińska, Justyna Sysiak-Sławecka, Tomasz Czarnik and Mirosław Czuczwar

    Citation: Trials 2019 20:777

    Content type: Study protocol

    Published on:

  39. Due to the high prevalence of vitamin-D deficiency worldwide and its health consequences, intervention studies at the community level are warranted. The present study has been conducted to evaluate the effecti...

    Authors: Hadith Tangestani, Kurosh Djafarian and Sakineh Shab-Bidar

    Citation: Trials 2019 20:776

    Content type: Study protocol

    Published on:

  40. Head and neck cancer (HNC) patients are at high risk for developing lymphedema and fibrosis (LEF) following cancer treatment. Once HNC patients develop LEF, they need to conduct life-long self-care to slow LEF...

    Authors: Jie Deng, Mary S. Dietrich and Barbara Murphy

    Citation: Trials 2019 20:775

    Content type: Study protocol

    Published on:

  41. Chronic pain is one of the most prevalent and disabling symptoms associated with multiple sclerosis (MS). Individuals with MS are interested in nonpharmacologic pain management approaches. Cognitive-behavioral...

    Authors: Dawn M. Ehde, Kevin N. Alschuler, Melissa A. Day, Marcia A. Ciol, Makena L. Kaylor, Jennifer K. Altman and Mark P. Jensen

    Citation: Trials 2019 20:774

    Content type: Study protocol

    Published on:

  42. Following an acquired brain injury, individuals frequently experience anxiety and/or depressive symptoms. However, current treatments for these symptoms are not very effective. A promising treatment is accepta...

    Authors: Johanne Rauwenhoff, Frenk Peeters, Yvonne Bol and Caroline Van Heugten

    Citation: Trials 2019 20:773

    Content type: Study protocol

    Published on:

  43. There has been little research to investigate whether the appearance of paper patient information leaflets (PILs) used to describe research studies to potential participants influences their decision to take p...

    Authors: Lucy Culliford, Rachel Brierley, Madeleine Clout, Rebecca Evans, Rachel Maishman, Dawn Phillips, Hana Tabusa, Barney Reeves and Chris A. Rogers

    Citation: Trials 2019 20:772

    Content type: Methodology

    Published on:

  44. After publication of our article [1] we were notified that a few duplicate sentences were included on page 7 of the manuscript.

    Authors: Pernille Langer Soendergaard, Mia Moth Wolffbrandt, Fin Biering-Sørensen, Malin Nordin, Trine Schow, Juan Carlos Arango-Lasprilla and Anne Norup

    Citation: Trials 2019 20:771

    Content type: Correction

    Published on:

    The original article was published in Trials 2019 20:646

  45. After publication of our article [1] we were notified that the word “References” was wrongly included in the title.

    Authors: Han Chen, Meng Ji, Yi Zhang, Yawei Xu, Lingjuan Qiao, Li Shen and Junbo Ge

    Citation: Trials 2019 20:770

    Content type: Correction

    Published on:

    The original article was published in Trials 2019 20:653

  46. Psychotic experiences, social functioning and general psychopathology are important targets for early intervention in individuals with Ultra-High-Risk state (UHR) and a first-episode psychosis (FEP). Acceptanc...

    Authors: Ulrich Reininghaus, Annelie Klippel, Henrietta Steinhart, Thomas Vaessen, Martine van Nierop, Wolfgang Viechtbauer, Tim Batink, Zuzana Kasanova, Evelyne van Aubel, Ruud van Winkel, Machteld Marcelis, Therese van Amelsvoort, Mark van der Gaag, Lieuwe de Haan and Inez Myin-Germeys

    Citation: Trials 2019 20:769

    Content type: Study protocol

    Published on:

  47. Individuals with cystic fibrosis (CF) may develop CF-related diabetes (CFDR). This comorbidity is related to a poorer quality of life, microvascular complications, a decline in lung function, and an increase i...

    Authors: Karolinne Souza Monteiro, Matheus de Paiva Azevedo, Lucas Menescal Jales, Fernanda Elizabeth Pereira da Silva, Ricardo Fernando Arrais and Karla Morganna Pereira Pinto de Mendonça

    Citation: Trials 2019 20:768

    Content type: Study protocol

    Published on:

  48. Low back pain (LBP) is the most frequent complaint in clinical practice. Electroacupuncture treatment may be effective; however, the supporting evidence is still limited, especially in older adults.

    Authors: Sarina Francescato Torres, Ana Carolina Brandt de Macedo, Mateus Dias Antunes, Ingred Merllin Batista de Souza, Francisco Dimitre Rodrigo Pereira Santos, Adriana de Sousa do Espírito Santo, Flávia Ribeiro Jacob, Ariela Torres Cruz, Priscila de Oliveira Januário and Amélia Pasqual Marques

    Citation: Trials 2019 20:762

    Content type: Study protocol

    Published on:

  49. Hypertension is present in more than 50% of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Dietary salt restriction is recommended for the management of high blood pressure. Instructions on dietary salt restriction, ...

    Authors: Emi Ushigome, Chikako Oyabu, Makoto Shiraishi, Nobuko Kitagawa, Aya Kitae, Keiko Iwai, Hidetaka Ushigome, Isao Yokota, Masahide Hamaguchi, Masahiro Yamazaki and Michiaki Fukui

    Citation: Trials 2019 20:761

    Content type: Study protocol

    Published on:

  50. The Cardiovascular Health Awareness Program (CHAP) uses volunteers to provide cardiovascular disease (CVD) and diabetes screening in a community setting, referrals to primary care providers, and locally availa...

    Authors: Gina Agarwal, Magali Girard, Ricardo Angeles, Melissa Pirrie, Marie-Thérèse Lussier, Francine Marzanek, Lisa Dolovich, J. Michael Paterson, Lehana Thabane and Janusz Kaczorowski

    Citation: Trials 2019 20:760

    Content type: Study protocol

    Published on:

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