Statistics South Africa. Mid-year population estimates 2019. 2019. https://www.statssa.gov.za/publications/P0302/P03022018.pdf. Accessed 14 Feb 2020.
UNAIDS. Global report: UNAIDS report on the global AIDS epidemic 2013. 2013. http://www.unaids.org/en/media/unaids/contentassets/documents/epidemiology/2013/gr2013/UNAIDS_Global_Report_2013_en.pdf. Accessed 14 Feb 2020.
UNAIDS. South Africa takes bold step to provide HIV treatment for all. 2016 May 13. http://www.unaids.org/en/resources/presscenter/pressreleaseandstatementarchive/2016/may/20160513_UTT. Accessed 14 Feb 2020.
Bor J, Herbst AJ, Newell M-L, Bärnighausen T. Increases in adult life expectancy in rural South Africa: valuing the scale-up of HIV treatment. Science. 2013;339(6122):961–5.
Oldenburg CE, Bärnighausen T, Tanser F, Iwuji CC, De Gruttola V, Seage GR, et al. Antiretroviral therapy to prevent HIV acquisition in serodiscordant couples in a hyperendemic community in rural South Africa. Clin Infect Dis. 2016;63(4):548–54.
Statistics South Africa. Mortality and causes of death in South Africa, 2016: Findings from death notification. 2018. http://www.statssa.gov.za/publications/P03093/P030932016.pdf. Accessed 14 Feb 2020.
Shisana O, Rehle T, Simbayi LC, Zuma K, Jooste S, Zungu N, et al. South African National HIV Prevalence, Incidence and Behaviour Survey, 2012. 2014. http://www.hsrc.ac.za/uploads/pageContent/4565/SABSSM IV LEO final.pdf. Accessed 14 Feb 2020.
World Health Organization. Antiretroviral drugs for treating pregnant women and preventing HIV infection in infants: recommendations for a public health approach. 2010. http://whqlibdoc.who.int/publications/2010/9789241599818_eng.pdf. Accessed 14 Feb 2020.
Kaplan R, Orrell C, Zwane E, Bekker L-G, Wood R. Loss to follow-up and mortality among pregnant women referred to a community clinic for antiretroviral treatment. AIDS. 2008;22(13):1679–81.
Clouse K, Pettifor A, Maskew M, Bassett J, Van Rie A, Gay C, et al. Initiating antiretroviral therapy when presenting with higher CD4 cell counts results in reduced loss to follow-up in a resource-limited setting. AIDS. 2013;27(4):645–50.
Myer L, Cornell M, Fox MP, Garone D, Wood R, Prozesky H, et al. Loss to follow-up and mortality among pregnant and non-pregnant women initiating ART: South Africa. In: 19th Conference on Retroviruses and Opportunistic Infections. 2012.
Wang B, Losina E, Stark R, Munro A, Walensky RP, Wilke M, et al. Loss to follow-up in a community clinic in South Africa–roles of gender, pregnancy and CD4 count. S Afr Med J. 2011;101(4):253–7.
Clouse K, Pettifor A, Shearer K, Maskew M, Bassett J, Larson B, et al. Loss to follow-up before and after delivery among women testing HIV positive during pregnancy in Johannesburg, South Africa. Trop Med Int Heal. 2013;18(4):451–60.
Rotheram-Borus MJ, Tomlinson M, Scheffler A, Le Roux IM. Re-engagement in HIV care among mothers living with HIV in South Africa over 36 months postbirth. AIDS. 2015;29(17):2361–2.
Cornell M, Grimsrud A, Fairall L, Fox MP, van Cutsem G, Giddy J, et al. Temporal changes in programme outcomes among adult patients initiating antiretroviral therapy across South Africa, 2002-2007. AIDS. 2010;24(14):2263–70.
Fox MP, Rosen S. Patient retention in antiretroviral therapy programs up to three years on treatment in sub-Saharan Africa, 2007-2009: systematic review. Trop Med Int Heal. 2010;15(Suppl 1):1–15.
Phillips TK, Thebus E, Bekker L-G, Mcintyre J, Abrams EJ, Myer L. Disengagement of HIV-positive pregnant and postpartum women from antiretroviral therapy services: a cohort study. J Int AIDS Soc. 2014;17:19242.
Geng EH, Glidden DV, Bwana MB, Musinguzi N, Emenyonu N, Muyindike W, et al. Retention in care and connection to care among HIV-infected patients on antiretroviral therapy in Africa: estimation via a sampling-based approach. PLoS One. 2011;6(7):e21797.
Clouse K, Vermund SH, Maskew M, Lurie MN, MacLeod W, Malete G, et al. Mobility and clinic switching among postpartum women considered lost to HIV care in South Africa. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2017;74(4):383–9.
Hickey MD, Omollo D, Salmen CR, Mattah B, Blat C, Ouma GB, et al. Movement between facilities for HIV care among a mobile population in Kenya: transfer, loss to follow-up, and reengagement. AIDS Care. 2016;28(11):1386–93.
Kwena ZA, Camlin CS, Shisanya CA, Mwanzo I, Bukusi EA. Short-term mobility and the risk of HIV infection among married couples in the fishing communities along Lake Victoria, Kenya. PLoS One. 2013;8(1):e54523.
Marson KG, Tapia K, Kohler P, McGrath CJ, John-Stewart GC, Richardson BA, et al. Male, mobile, and moneyed: loss to follow-up vs. transfer of care in an urban African antiretroviral treatment clinic. PLoS One. 2013;8(10):e78900.
Bygrave H, Kranzer K, Hilderbrand K, Whittall J, Jouquet G, Goemaere E, et al. Trends in loss to follow-up among migrant workers on antiretroviral therapy in a community cohort in Lesotho. PLoS One. 2010;5(10):e13198.
Sikombe K, Kadota JL, Simbeza S, Eshun-Wilson I, Beres L, Moore CB, et al. Understanding patient mobility in HIV-positive adults across multiple clinics in Zambia. 25th Conference on Retroviruses and Opportunistic Infections; 2018. http://www.croiconference.org/sites/default/files/posters-2018/1430_Sikombe_1091.pdf. Accessed 14 Feb 2020.
Taylor BS, Reyes E, Levine EA, Khan SZ, Garduño LS, Donastorg Y, et al. Patterns of geographic mobility predict barriers to engagement in HIV care and antiretroviral treatment adherence. AIDS Patient Care STDs. 2014;28(6):284–95.
Statistics South Africa. Migration and urbanisation in South Africa. Pretoria; 2006. http://www.statssa.gov.za/publications/Report-03-04-02/Report-03-04-02.pdf. Accessed 14 Feb 2020.
Hoffman RM, Black V, Technau K, van der Merwe KJ, Currier J, Coovadia A, et al. Effects of highly active antiretroviral therapy duration and regimen on risk for mother-to-child transmission of HIV in Johannesburg, South Africa. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2010;54(1):35–41.
Ferguson L, Lewis J, Grant AD, Watson-Jones D, Vusha S, Ongʼech JO, et al. Patient attrition between diagnosis with HIV in pregnancy-related services and long-term HIV care and treatment services in Kenya: a retrospective study. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2012;60(3):e90–7.
Clouse K, Fox MP, Mongwenyana C, Motlhatlhedi M, Buthelezi S, Bokaba D, et al. “I will leave the baby with my mother”: long-distance travel and follow-up care among HIV-positive pregnant and postpartum women in South Africa. J Int AIDS Soc. 2018;21:e25121.
Pew Research Center. Internet seen as positive influence on education but negative on morality in emerging and developing nations. 2015. https://www.pewresearch.org/wp-content/uploads/sites/2/2015/03/Pew-Research-Center-Technology-Report-FINAL-March-19-20151.pdf. Accessed 14 Feb 2020.
Clouse K, Hanrahan CF, Van Rie A, Bassett J, Vermund S, Pettifor AE. High cell phone ownership but low internet and email usage among pregnant, HIV-infected women attending antenatal care in Johannesburg, South Africa. J Telemed Telecare. 2015;21(2):104–7.
Mobile Marketing Association South Africa. MMA SA 2016 Report. 2016. http://www.bizcommunity.com/f/1604/MMA_SA_Mobile_Report_-_AMPS_2015A_LR.pdf. Accessed 14 Feb 2020.
Pop-Eleches C, Thirumurthy H, Habyarimana JP, Zivin JG, Goldstein MP, de Walque D, et al. Mobile phone technologies improve adherence to antiretroviral treatment in a resource-limited setting: a randomized controlled trial of text message reminders. AIDS. 2011;25(6):825–34.
Lester RT, Ritvo P, Mills EJ, Kariri A, Karanja S, Chung MH, et al. Effects of a mobile phone short message service on antiretroviral treatment adherence in Kenya (WelTel Kenya1): a randomised trial. Lancet. 2010;376(9755):1838–45.
Odeny TA, Bailey RC, Bukusi EA, Simoni JM, Tapia KA, Yuhas K, et al. Text messaging to improve attendance at post-operative clinic visits after adult male circumcision for HIV prevention: a randomized controlled trial. PLoS One. 2012;7(9):e43832.
Joseph-Davey D, Ponce W, Augusto O, Traca D, Jetha E, de Palha de Sousa C. Improved retention in HIV care following SMS reminders in Mozambique: a randomized controlled trial. Kuala Lumpur: 7th IAS Conference on HIV Pathogensis, Treatment and Prevention; 2013.
Phillips M, Hall T, Esmen N, Lynch R, Johnson D. Use of global positioning system technology to track subject’s location during environmental exposure sampling. J Expo Anal Env Epidemiol. 2001;11(3):207–15.
Elgethun K, Fenske RA, Yost MG, Palcisko GJ. Time-location analysis for exposure assessment studies of children using a novel global positioning system instrument. Env Heal Perspect. 2003;111(1):115–22.
Byrnes HF, Miller BA, Morrison CN, Wiebe DJ, Remer LG, Wiehe SE. Brief report: Using global positioning system (GPS) enabled cell phones to examine adolescent travel patterns and time in proximity to alcohol outlets. J Adolesc. 2016;50:65–8.
Duncan DT, Kapadia F, Regan SD, Goedel WC, Levy MD, Barton SC, et al. Feasibility and acceptability of global positioning system (GPS) methods to study the spatial contexts of substance use and sexual risk behaviors among young men who have sex with men in New York City: a P18 Cohort sub-study. PLoS One. 2016;11(2):e0147520.
Goedel WC, Reisner SL, Janssen AC, Poteat TC, Regan SD, Kreski NT, et al. Acceptability and feasibility of using a novel geospatial method to measure neighborhood contexts and mobility among transgender women in New York City. Transgend Heal. 2017;2(1):96–106.
Phillips TK, McNairy ML, Zerbe A, Myer L, Abrams EJ. Postpartum transfer of care among HIV-infected women initiating antiretroviral therapy during pregnancy. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2015;70(3):e102–9.
Myer L, Phillips T, McIntyre JA, Hsiao N-Y, Petro G, Zerbe A, et al. HIV viraemia and mother-to-child transmission risk after antiretroviral therapy initiation in pregnancy in Cape Town, South Africa. HIV Med. 2016;18(2):80–8.
Myer L, Phillips TK, Manuelli V, McIntyre J, Bekker L-G, Abrams EJ. Evolution of antiretroviral therapy services for HIV-infected pregnant women in Cape Town, South Africa. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2015;69(2):e57-e65.
Mogoba P, Phillips TK, Myer L, Ndlovu L, Were MC, Clouse K. Smartphone usage and preferences among postpartum HIV-positive women in South Africa. Cape Town: AIDSImpact 13th International Conference; 2017.
Schwartz SR, Clouse K, Yende N, Van Rie A, Bassett J, Ratshefola M, et al. Acceptability and feasibility of a mobile phone-based case management intervention to retain mothers and infants from an Option B+ Program in postpartum HIV care. Matern Child Heal J. 2015;19(9):2029–37.
Myer L, Harrison A. Why do women seek antenatal care late? Perspectives from rural South Africa. J Midwifery Womens Heal. 2003;48(4):268–72.
Campbell JI, Aturinda I, Mwesigwa E, Burns B, Santorino D, Haberer JE, et al. The Technology Acceptance Model for Resource-Limited Settings (TAM-RLS): a novel framework for mobile health interventions targeted to low-literacy end-users in resource-limited settings. AIDS Behav. 2017;21(11):3129–40.
Wilson IB, Lee Y, Michaud J, Fowler FJ, Rogers WH. Validation of a new Three-Item Self-Report Measure for Medication Adherence. AIDS Behav. 2016;20(11):2700–8.
Bush K, Kivlahan DR, McDonell MB, Fihn SD, Bradley KA. The AUDIT alcohol consumption questions (AUDIT-C): an effective brief screening test for problem drinking. Arch Intern Med. 1998;158(16):1789.
Berman AH, Bergman H, Palmstierna T, Schlyter F. Evaluation of the Drug Use Disorders Identification Test (DUDIT) in criminal justice and detoxification settings and in a Swedish population sample. Eur Addict Ress. 2005;11(1):22–31.
Kroenke K, Spitzer RL, Williams JBW, Lowe B. An ultra-brief screening scale for anxiety and depression: the PHQ-4. Psychosomatics. 2009;50(6):613–21.
García-Moreno C, Jansen HAFM, Ellsberg M, Heise L, Watts C. WHO Multi-country Study on Women’s Health and Domestic Violence against Women. Geneva; 2005. https://www.who.int/reproductivehealth/publications/violence/24159358X/en/. Accessed 14 Feb 2020.
Seedat S, Stein DJ, Jackson PB, Heeringa SG, Williams DR, Myer L. Life stress and mental disorders in the South African stress and health study. S Afr Med J. 2009;99(5 Pt 2):375–82.
Barry OM, Bergh A-M, Makin JD, Etsane E, Kershaw TS, Forsyth BWC. Development of a measure of the patient–provider relationship in antenatal care and its importance in PMTCT. AIDS Care. 2012;24(6):680–6.
Barrera MA. A method for assessing social support networks in community survey research. Connections. 1980;3(3):8–13.
Fife BL, Wright ER. The dimensionality of stigma: a comparison of its impact on the self of persons with HIV/AIDS and cancer. J Health Soc Behav. 2000;41(1):50–67.
Harris PA, Taylor R, Thielke R, Payne J, Gonzalez N, Conde JG. Research electronic data capture (REDCap)–a metadata-driven methodology and workflow process for providing translational research informatics support. J Biomed Inf. 2009;42(2):377–81.
Clouse K, Phillips TK, Magoba P, Ndlovu L, Bassett J, Myer L. Attitudes towards a proposed GPS-based location tracking smartphone application for improving engagement in HIV care among pregnant and postpartum women in South Africa. London: AIDSImpact 14th International Conference; 2019.