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  1. Obese patients undergoing general anesthesia and mechanical ventilation during laparoscopic abdominal surgery commonly have a higher incidence of postoperative pulmonary complications (PPCs), due to factors su...

    Authors: Chen Zhu, Jing-Wen Yao, Li-Xin An, Ya-Fan Bai and Wen-Jing Li

    Citation: Trials 2020 21:618

    Content type: Study protocol

    Published on:

  2. Elevated cholesterol levels and systemic inflammation are considered relevant risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD) development and progression. Increasing evidence suggests that cholesterol-lowering a...

    Authors: Anna Rita Bonfigli, Olga Protic, Fabiola Olivieri, Alberto Montesanto, Gelsomina Malatesta, Raffaele Di Pillo and Roberto Antonicelli

    Citation: Trials 2020 21:616

    Content type: Study protocol

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  3. Chronic musculoskeletal pain (MSP) affects more than 40% of adults aged 50 years and older and is the leading cause of disability in the USA. Older adults with chronic MSP are at risk for analgesic-related sid...

    Authors: Timothy F. Platts-Mills, Samuel A. McLean, Morris Weinberger, Sally C. Stearns, Montika Bush, Brittni B. Teresi, Karen Hurka-Richardson, Kurt Kroenke, Robert D. Kerns, Mark A. Weaver and Francis J. Keefe

    Citation: Trials 2020 21:615

    Content type: Study protocol

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  4. In a randomized crossover trial, each participant is randomized to a sequence of treatments and treatment effect is estimated based on within-individual difference because each participant serves as his/her ow...

    Authors: Lijuan Zeng, Riaz Qureshi, Shilpa Viswanathan, Lea Drye and Tianjing Li

    Citation: Trials 2020 21:613

    Content type: Methodology

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  5. Cancer-related fatigue (CRF) is the most taxing symptom for many breast cancer patients during and after therapy. In patients with metastatic disease, the prevalence of CRF exceeds 75%. Currently, there is no ...

    Authors: Delphine Meier-Girard, Karin Ribi, Gisa Gerstenberg, Thomas Ruhstaller and Ursula Wolf

    Citation: Trials 2020 21:612

    Content type: Study protocol

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  6. Despite improvements in medical care, patients with advanced cancer still experience substantial symptom distress. There is increasing interest in the use of medicinal cannabinoids but little high-quality evid...

    Authors: Janet Hardy, Alison Haywood, Gauri Gogna, Jennifer Martin, Patsy Yates, Ristan Greer and Phillip Good

    Citation: Trials 2020 21:611

    Content type: Study protocol

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  7. As there is no treatment for COVID-19 with a proven mortality benefit at this moment in the pandemic, supportive management including mechanical ventilation is the core management in an intensive care unit (IC...

    Authors: Atsushi Kawaguchi, Gabrielle Bernier, Jacques Lacroix, Saly El Salti, Matthew P. Cheng, Todd C. Lee, Kosar Khwaja and Philippe Jouvet

    Citation: Trials 2020 21:610

    Content type: Letter

    Published on:

  8. To evaluate the therapeutic effects of ultra-short-wave diathermy (SWD) on COVID-19 pneumonia. The hypothesis is that SWD may minimise pneumonic inflammation and shorten the duration of the time to positive-to...

    Authors: Mohammad Nasb, Zulfiqar Ali Sayed Shah, Liangjiang Huang, Qian Li and Hong Chen

    Citation: Trials 2020 21:609

    Content type: Letter

    Published on:

  9. Wound complications following midline laparotomies are common and the main source of postoperative morbidity including superficial or deep wound infection, skin dehiscence, fascia dehiscence, and incisional he...

    Authors: Mohamad Hadi El Charif, Zeina Hassan, Jamal Hoballah, Mohamad Khalife and Eman Sbaity

    Citation: Trials 2020 21:608

    Content type: Study protocol

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  10. The primary objectives of the study are:

    Authors: Raquel González, Laura García-Otero, Clara Pons-Duran, Elena Marbán-Castro, Anna Goncé, Elisa Llurba, Maria del Mar Gil, Miguel Ángel Rodríguez-Zambrano, Haily Chen, Máximo Ramírez, Azucena Bardají and Clara Menendez

    Citation: Trials 2020 21:607

    Content type: Letter

    Published on:

  11. Ankle sprains and fractures are most common injuries in orthopedic and trauma surgery. The concurrent occurrence of syndesmosis ruptures in these injuries represents a more complex problem, as they often remai...

    Authors: Julian Doll, Stefan Waizenegger, Thomas Bruckner, Gerhard Schmidmaier, Sebastian I. Wolf and Christian Fischer

    Citation: Trials 2020 21:606

    Content type: Study protocol

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  12. Reduction mammaplasty is among the most commonly performed procedures in plastic surgery. Antibiotics are widely prescribed, on an empirical basis, to prevent surgical site infections. However, there is a lack...

    Authors: Daniela Francescato Veiga, Edgard da Silva Garcia, José Wilson Moreira-Filho, Evelyne Borges de Mattos Andrade, Yara Juliano, Joel Veiga-Filho and Lydia Masako Ferreira

    Citation: Trials 2020 21:605

    Content type: Study protocol

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  13. To determine whether chemoprophylaxis with hydroxychloroquine versus placebo increases time to contracting coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in frontline healthcare workers.

    Authors: Carmel M. McEniery, Marie Fisk, Karen Miles, Fotini Kaloyirou, Annette Hubsch, Jane Smith, Ian B. Wilkinson and Joseph Cheriyan

    Citation: Trials 2020 21:604

    Content type: Letter

    Published on:

    The Correction to this article has been published in Trials 2020 21:641

  14. Esophagectomy is still advised as an additional treatment for pathological T1b (pT1b) esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) following attempted endoscopic resection (ER). ER followed with definitive chemor...

    Authors: Yang Yang, Yuchen Su, Xiaobin Zhang, Jun Liu, Hong Zhang, Bin Li, Rong Hua, Lijie Tan, Hezhong Chen and Zhigang Li

    Citation: Trials 2020 21:603

    Content type: Study protocol

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  15. At present, China has more than 11 million patients with stable coronary heart disease and this is becoming a major public health problem. The pathological changes of coronary heart disease can lead to dysfunc...

    Authors: Qing Wu, Lin Liu, Xin Jiang, Yao-Yao Hu, Qiu-Shi Liang, Zhi-Song He, Yuan Xue, Wei Zhu, Zai-Xiang Tang, Yun-Ying Hou, Qi Zhao and Xiao-Hua Wang

    Citation: Trials 2020 21:602

    Content type: Study protocol

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  16. Septic shock remains a significant cause of death in critically ill patients. During septic shock, some patients will retain microcirculatory disorders despite optimal hemodynamic support (i.e., fluid resuscit...

    Authors: Matthieu Legrand, Hafid Ait Oufella, Daniel De Backer, Jacques Duranteau, Marc Leone, Bruno Levy, Patrick Rossignol, Eric Vicaut and François Dépret

    Citation: Trials 2020 21:601

    Content type: Study protocol

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  17. Subfertility is a common problem for which in vitro fertilisation (IVF) treatment is commonly recommended. Success rates following IVF are suboptimal and have remained static over the last few years. This impo...

    Authors: Priya Bhide, Arasaratnam Srikantharajah, Doris Lanz, Julie Dodds, Bonnie Collins, Javier Zamora, David Chan, Shakila Thangaratinam and Khalid S. Khan

    Citation: Trials 2020 21:600

    Content type: Study protocol

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  18. Oral healthcare service provision for dependent older adults is often poor. For dental services to provide more responsive and equitable care, evidence-based approaches are needed. To facilitate future researc...

    Authors: Sinead Watson, Julie McMullan, Paul Brocklehurst, Georgios Tsakos, Richard G. Watt, Rebecca R. Wassall, Andrea Sherriff, Sheena E. Ramsay, Anup J. Karki, Sayaka Tada, Caroline Lappin, Michael Donaldson and Gerald McKenna

    Citation: Trials 2020 21:599

    Content type: Study protocol

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  19. The community-based mental health care programme GBV is based on the British Community Mental Health Teams and the Dutch Flexible Assertive Community Treatment model. In addition, the programme offers crisis-i...

    Authors: Annabel Sandra Mueller-Stierlin, Friedrich Meixner, Anne Kohlmann, Mara Schumacher, Anke Hänsel, Melanie Pouwels, Nicole Bias, Sabrina Hartl, Jessica Reichstein, Elke Prestin, Nils Greve, Thomas Becker and Reinhold Kilian

    Citation: Trials 2020 21:598

    Content type: Study protocol

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  20. Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is one of the most common functional gastrointestinal disorders characterized by recurrent abdominal pain associated with defecation or a change in bowel habits. Leading to signi...

    Authors: Tao Bai, Haoyu Zeng, Yanqin Long, Xiaoqing Li, Xiaohong Sun, Yu Lan, Lingling Gao, Lu Zhang, Zenghui Feng and Xiaohua Hou

    Citation: Trials 2020 21:597

    Content type: Study protocol

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  21. The E-Freeze trial is a multi-centre randomised controlled trial of fresh versus frozen embryo transfer for women undergoing in vitro fertilisation. This paper describes the statistical analysis plan for the E...

    Authors: Jennifer L. Bell, Pollyanna Hardy, Melanie Greenland, Edmund Juszczak, Christina Cole, Abha Maheshwari, Siladitya Bhattacharya and Louise Linsell

    Citation: Trials 2020 21:596

    Content type: Update

    Published on:

    The Study protocol to this article has been published in Reproductive Health 2019 16:81

  22. Pediatric obstructive sleep apnea/hypopnea syndrome (OSAHS) is a multifactorial syndrome caused by many risk factors, such as craniofacial anomalies, adenotonsillar hypertrophy, obesity, and airway inflammatio...

    Authors: Yuanyuan Li, Jiali Wu, Jinghan Guo, Liming Yu, Jing Wang, Xiaoyan Li, Shuhua Xu, Min Zhu, Jinqiu Feng and Yuehua Liu

    Citation: Trials 2020 21:595

    Content type: Study protocol

    Published on:

  23. The Melanoma Genomics Managing Your Risk Study is a randomised controlled trial that aims to evaluate the efficacy of providing information on personal genomic risk of melanoma in reducing ultraviolet radiatio...

    Authors: Serigne N. Lo, Amelia K. Smit, David Espinoza and Anne E. Cust

    Citation: Trials 2020 21:594

    Content type: Update

    Published on:

    A Related Article has been published.

  24. Sickle cell disease (SCD) is a genetic disorder which causes dysfunctional red blood cells (RBC) and is thought to increase requirements for folate, an essential B vitamin, due to increased RBC production and ...

    Authors: Brock A. Williams, Heather McCartney, Erin Adams, Angela M. Devlin, Joel Singer, Suzanne Vercauteren, John K. Wu and Crystal D. Karakochuk

    Citation: Trials 2020 21:593

    Content type: Study protocol

    Published on:

  25. Medications for smoking cessation are currently only effective in helping a minority of smokers quit. Drug development is slow and expensive; as such, there is much interest in optimizing the effectiveness of ...

    Authors: Laurie Zawertailo, Christian S. Hendershot, Rachel F. Tyndale, Bernard Le Foll, Andriy V. Samokhvalov, Kevin E. Thorpe, Andrew Pipe, Robert D. Reid and Peter Selby

    Citation: Trials 2020 21:592

    Content type: Study protocol

    Published on:

  26. Central nervous system damage in multiple sclerosis (MS) is responsible for serious deficiencies. Current therapies are focused on the treatment of inflammation; however, there is an urgent need for innovative...

    Authors: Katline Metzger-Peter, Laurent Daniel Kremer, Gilles Edan, Paulo Loureiro De Sousa, Julien Lamy, Dominique Bagnard, Ayikoe-Guy Mensah-Nyagan, Thibault Tricard, Guillaume Mathey, Marc Debouverie, Eric Berger, Anne Kerbrat, Nicolas Meyer, Jérôme De Seze and Nicolas Collongues

    Citation: Trials 2020 21:591

    Content type: Study protocol

    Published on:

  27. Critically ill infants with congenital heart disease (CHD) are often prescribed stress ulcer prophylaxis (SUP) to prevent upper gastrointestinal bleeding, despite the low incidence of stress ulcers and limited...

    Authors: Kimberly I. Mills, Ben D. Albert, Lori J. Bechard, Christopher P. Duggan, Aditya Kaza, Seth Rakoff-Nahoum, Hera Vlamakis, Lynn A. Sleeper, Jane W. Newburger, Gregory P. Priebe and Nilesh M. Mehta

    Citation: Trials 2020 21:590

    Content type: Study protocol

    Published on:

  28. Plantar fasciopathy is a common cause of plantar heel pain, with a reported prevalence of up to 10%. The choice of best practice in these patients is debated. Two randomised studies reported that radial extrac...

    Authors: Marte Heide, Marianne Mørk, Cecilie Røe, Jens Ivar Brox and Aasne Fenne Hoksrud

    Citation: Trials 2020 21:589

    Content type: Study protocol

    Published on:

  29. In December 2019, 27 cases of pneumonia, of unknown cause, were identified in the province of Hubei (China). The WHO declared the situation as a Public Health Emergency of International Concern, and it was fin...

    Authors: Juan Jose Gonzalez-Gerez, Carlos Bernal-Utrera, Ernesto Anarte-Lazo, Jose Antonio Garcia-Vidal, Jose Martin Botella-Rico and Cleofas Rodriguez-Blanco

    Citation: Trials 2020 21:588

    Content type: Study protocol

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  30. Adolescent depression is a common mental health problem and there is an urgent need for effective and accessible treatments. Internet-based interventions solve many obstacles for seeking and receiving treatmen...

    Authors: Jakob Mechler, Karin Lindqvist, Per Carlbring, Peter Lilliengren, Fredrik Falkenström, Gerhard Andersson, Naira Topooco, Robert Johansson, Nick Midgley, Julian Edbrooke-Childs, Hanne-Sofie J. Dahl, Rolf Sandell, Agneta Thorén, Randi Ulberg, Katja Lindert Bergsten and Björn Philips

    Citation: Trials 2020 21:587

    Content type: Study protocol

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  31. Residual and recurrent stones remain one of the most important challenges of hepatolithiasis and are reported in 20 to 50% of patients treated for this condition. To date, the two most common surgical procedur...

    Authors: Jiang-ming Chen, Xi-yang Yan, Tao Zhu, Zi-xiang Chen, Yi-jun Zhao, Kun Xie, Fu-bao Liu and Xiao-ping Geng

    Citation: Trials 2020 21:586

    Content type: Study protocol

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  32. Patients with diabetes mellitus are at a high risk of developing postoperative acute kidney injury. For patients receiving laparoscopic surgery, standard-pressure pneumoperitoneum (SPP) currently applied in cl...

    Authors: Xiaohan Xu, Yahong Gong, Yuelun Zhang, Jiaxin Lang and Yuguang Huang

    Citation: Trials 2020 21:585

    Content type: Study protocol

    Published on:

  33. Primary objective: Evaluation of the effect of the proton pump inhibitor (PPI) pantoprazole on the absorption of hydroxychloroquine (HCQ).

    Authors: Felicitas Stoll, Antje Blank, Gerd Mikus, David Czock, Kathrin I. Foerster, Simon Hermann, Katja Häußler, Amin Muhareb, Simone Hummler, Johanna Weiss, Jürgen Burhenne and Walter E. Haefeli

    Citation: Trials 2020 21:584

    Content type: Letter

    Published on:

  34. The clinical onset of borderline personality disorder (BPD) usually occurs in young people (aged 12–25 years) and commonly leads to difficulty achieving and maintaining vocational (education and/or employment)...

    Authors: Andrew M. Chanen, Katie Nicol, Jennifer K. Betts, Gary R. Bond, Cathrine Mihalopoulos, Henry J. Jackson, Katherine N. Thompson, Martina Jovev, Hok Pan Yuen, Gina Chinnery, Judith Ring, Kelly Allott, Louise McCutcheon, Ashleigh P. Salmon and Eoin Killackey

    Citation: Trials 2020 21:583

    Content type: Study protocol

    Published on:

  35. Perioperative ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury during liver transplantation is strongly associated with early allograft dysfunction (EAD), graft loss, and mortality. Hepatic I/R injury also causes remote dama...

    Authors: Chenlu Ni, Joe Masters, Ling Zhu, Weifeng Yu, Yingfu Jiao, Yuting Yang, Cui Cui, Suqing Yin, Liqun Yang, Bo Qi and Daqing Ma

    Citation: Trials 2020 21:582

    Content type: Study protocol

    Published on:

  36. Thoracic epidural anesthesia is no longer considered the gold standard for perioperative analgesia in laparoscopic colorectal procedures. In the search for alternatives, the efficacy of the transverse abdomina...

    Authors: Steve Coppens, Steffen Rex, Steffen Fieuws, Arne Neyrinck, Andre D’Hoore and Geertrui Dewinter

    Citation: Trials 2020 21:581

    Content type: Study protocol

    Published on:

  37. Moderate-to-severe postoperative pain following craniotomy has a high incidence in pediatric patients. Such pain may cause agitation, intracranial hypertension, epileptic seizures, and postoperative hematoma, ...

    Authors: Wei Xiong, Lu Li, Di Bao, Yaxin Wang, Yi Liang, Pengwei Lu, Di Zhang, Gaifen Liu, Lanxin Qiao, Na Zheng and Xu Jin

    Citation: Trials 2020 21:580

    Content type: Study protocol

    Published on:

  38. Multiple therapies exist for patients with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC). However, their improvement on progression-free survival (PFS) remains modest, potentially explained by tumor ...

    Authors: Alessio Crippa, Bram De Laere, Andrea Discacciati, Berit Larsson, Jason T. Connor, Erin E. Gabriel, Camilla Thellenberg, Elin Jänes, Gunilla Enblad, Anders Ullen, Marie Hjälm-Eriksson, Jan Oldenburg, Piet Ost, Johan Lindberg, Martin Eklund and Henrik Grönberg

    Citation: Trials 2020 21:579

    Content type: Study protocol

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  39. Major results of randomized clinical trials on cardiovascular prevention are currently provided in terms of relative or absolute risk reductions, including also the number needed to treat (NNT), incorrectly im...

    Authors: Alessandro Mengozzi, Domenico Tricò and Andrea Natali

    Citation: Trials 2020 21:578

    Content type: Methodology

    Published on:

  40. Approximately 8 - 10 % of COVID-19 patients present with a serious clinical course and need for hospitalization, 8% of hospitalized patients need ICU-treatment. Currently, no causal therapy is available and tr...

    Authors: Helena Stockmann, Theresa Keller, Stefan Büttner, Achim Jörres, Detlef Kindgen-Milles, Julius Valentin Kunz, Josef Leebmann, Claudia Spies, Karl Träger, Sascha Treskatsch, Alexander Uhrig, Carsten Willam, Philipp Enghard and Torsten Slowinski

    Citation: Trials 2020 21:577

    Content type: Letter

    Published on:

  41. Primary Objective:

    Authors: Carlos Tornero, Ricardo Vallejo, David Cedeño, Jorge Orduña, Ernesto Pastor, Moncef Belaouchi, Benigno Escamilla, Marisa Laredo and María del Mar Garzando

    Citation: Trials 2020 21:576

    Content type: Letter

    Published on:

  42. In this study, we investigate the effect of hydroxychloroquine on the prevention of Novel Coronavirus Disease (COVID-19) in cancer patients being treated.

    Authors: Abolghasem Allahyari, Hossein Rahimi, Majid Khadem-Rezaiyan, Zahra Mozaheb, Mohsen Seddigh-Shamsi, Alireza Bary, Mostafa Kamandi, Sajad Ataei Azimi, Saeed Eslami HasanAbadi, Alireza Noferesti, Somayeh Sadat Shariatmaghani, Houshang Rafatpanah, Shohreh Khatami, Afshin Jabbar Imani, Hassan Mortazi and Mohammad Moeini Nodeh

    Citation: Trials 2020 21:575

    Content type: Letter

    Published on:

  43. To assess whether high doses of Low Molecular Weight Heparin (LMWH) (i.e. Enoxaparin 70 IU/kg twice daily) compared to standard prophylactic dose (i.e., Enoxaparin 4000 IU once day), in hospitalized patients w...

    Authors: Marco Marietta, Paola Vandelli, Pasquale Mighali, Roberto Vicini, Valeria Coluccio and Roberto D’Amico

    Citation: Trials 2020 21:574

    Content type: Letter

    Published on:

  44. Tissue hypoxia is the main cause of multi-organ dysfunction in sepsis. However, effective pharmacological treatments to combat sepsis-induced tissue hypoxia are not available. Emerging experimental and clinica...

    Authors: Constantinos Pantos, Georgia Kostopanagiotou, Apostolos Armaganidis, Athanasios Trikas, Ioulia Tseti and Iordanis Mourouzis

    Citation: Trials 2020 21:573

    Content type: Letter

    Published on:

  45. Suicide is a major public health challenge globally and specifically in India where 36.6% and 24.3% of all suicides worldwide occur in women and men, respectively. The United Nations Sustainable Development Go...

    Authors: Soumitra Pathare, Laura Shields-Zeeman, Lakshmi Vijayakumar, Deepa Pandit, Renuka Nardodkar, Susmita Chatterjee, Jasmine Kalha, Sadhvi Krishnamoorthy, Nikhil Jain, Arjun Kapoor, Mohammad Shahjahan, Ajay Chauhan and Filip Smit

    Citation: Trials 2020 21:572

    Content type: Study protocol

    Published on:

  46. Acne vulgaris has increased in women over the past 10 years; it currently affects 20–30% of women. The physiopathology of adult female acne is distinguished from that of teenagers essentially by two factors: h...

    Authors: Alexandra Poinas, Marie Lemoigne, Sarah Le Naour, Jean-Michel Nguyen, Solène Schirr-Bonnans, Valery-Pierre Riche, Florence Vrignaud, Laurent Machet, Jean-Paul Claudel, Marie-Thérèse Leccia, Ewa Hainaut, Nathalie Beneton, Cécile Dert, Aurélie Boisrobert, Laurent Flet, Anne Chiffoleau…

    Citation: Trials 2020 21:571

    Content type: Study protocol

    Published on:

  47. It is increasingly accepted that insufficient attention has been given to the patient health outcomes that are important to measure in comparative effectiveness research that will inform decision-making. The r...

    Authors: Susanna Dodd, Nicola Harman, Nichole Taske, Mark Minchin, Toni Tan and Paula R. Williamson

    Citation: Trials 2020 21:570

    Content type: Commentary

    Published on:

  48. Rural areas of India exhibit high neonatal mortality, and low literacy and numeracy. We assess the effect of a complex package of health interventions on neonatal survival and the effect of out-of-school-hours...

    Authors: Arjun Agarwal, Rukmini Banerji, Peter Boone, Diana Elbourne, Ila Fazzio, Chris Frost, Madan Gopal, Sridevi Karnati, Rakhi Nair, Harshavardhan Reddy, Padmanabh Reddy, Dropti Sharma, Sajjan Singh Shekhawat and Siddharudha Shivalli

    Citation: Trials 2020 21:569

    Content type: Study protocol

    Published on:

  49. Currently, coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is continuously and rapidly circulating, causing heavy damage on public health. No effective antiviral treatment has been proved thus far. Traditional Chinese med...

    Authors: Bangjiang Fang, Wen Zhang, Xinxin Wu, Tingrong Huang, Huacheng Li, You Zheng, Jinhua Che, Shuting Sun, Chao Jiang, Shuang Zhou and Jun Feng

    Citation: Trials 2020 21:568

    Content type: Study protocol

    Published on:

  50. Contrast-induced acute kidney injury (CI-AKI) contributes toward unfavorable clinical outcomes after primary percutaneous coronary intervention (pPCI). We will assess whether hyperuricemia is an independent pr...

    Authors: Wei Guo, Feier Song, Shiqun Chen, Li Zhang, Guoli Sun, Jin Liu, Jiyan Chen, Yong Liu and Ning Tan

    Citation: Trials 2020 21:567

    Content type: Study protocol

    Published on:

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