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  1. Recently, several case reports and limited randomized studies have shown that quadratus lumborum blocks (QLB) are effective in providing pain relief after intra-abdominal and retroperitoneal operations. Additi...

    Authors: Renchun Lai, Quehua Luo, Jielan Lai, Xiaoyun Lu and Mei Xu

    Citation: Trials 2021 22:840

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  2. Anorexia nervosa (AN) mainly affects women (sex ratio 1/10) and most often starts during adolescence. The prognosis of AN remains poor (10% of deaths and high risk of chronicity). Body dissatisfaction, disturb...

    Authors: Aurélie Letranchant, Yunkyung Kim-de Montebello, Corinne Dugré-Le bigre, Agathe Wagner, Florence Curt, Jérôme Silva, Isabelle Nicolas, Pablo Votadoro, Nina Kalindjian, Anna Korchonnoff, Andréa Gutierre, Ana Beatriz Novelli, Alexandra Pham-Scottez and Maurice Corcos

    Citation: Trials 2021 22:839

    Content type: Study protocol

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  3. Hypertensive disorders of pregnancy are important causes of maternal morbidity and mortality, as well as preterm birth, the leading cause of death for children under 5 years globally. The World Health Organiza...

    Authors: Pratibha Dwarkanath, Alfa Muhihi, Christopher R. Sudfeld, Shobha Rani, Christopher P. Duggan, Mary M. Sando, Blair J. Wylie, Ryan Fernandez, Shabani Kinyogoli, Cristina Munk, Nandita Perumal, John Michael Raj, Nirmala Buggi, Ndeniria Swai, Tinku Thomas, Molin Wang…

    Citation: Trials 2021 22:838

    Content type: Study protocol

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  4. People with post-stroke aphasia commonly receive speech-language therapy (SLT) when they are admitted to hospitals. Commonly, these patients reported communication difficulties in in-patient settings. Augmenta...

    Authors: Li Huang, Szu-Han Kay Chen, Shutian Xu, Yongli Wang, Xing Jin, Ping Wan, Jikang Sun, Jiming Tao, Sicong Zhang, Guohui Zhang and Chunlei Shan

    Citation: Trials 2021 22:837

    Content type: Study protocol

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  5. The benefits of mother’s own milk (MOM) for preterm infants have been widely recognized. Many studies have shown that the rate of breastfeeding of premature infants remains very low. Although many studies use ...

    Authors: Jie Huo, Xinping Wu, Chuanli Gu, Zhangbin Yu, Jun Zhang, Xiaohui Chen, Jingai Zhu, Feng Liu, Beibei Liu, Qianqian Li and Shuping Han

    Citation: Trials 2021 22:834

    Content type: Study protocol

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  6. Remdesivir is a novel broad-spectrum antiviral therapeutic with activity against several viruses that cause emerging infectious diseases. The purpose of this study is to explore how commonly utilized antiretro...

    Authors: Stephen I. Walimbwa, Julian P. Kaboggoza, Catriona Waitt, Pauline Byakika-Kibwika, Antonio D’Avolio and Mohammed Lamorde

    Citation: Trials 2021 22:831

    Content type: Study protocol

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  7. Fermented Rhus verniciflua Stokes extract (FRVE) reported an anti-hepatic lipidemic property mediated by the upregulation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) in cell and animal models. However, it remains uncl...

    Authors: Jung Hyun Kwak, Hyo-Jeong Lee, Seok-Tae Jeong, Ju Yeon Lee, Minho Lee and Jean Kyung Paik

    Citation: Trials 2021 22:830

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  8. Treatments for youth mental disorders are a public health priority, especially in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), where treatment options remain limited due to high cost, elevated stigma, and lack of trained mental ...

    Authors: Katherine E. Venturo-Conerly, Tom L. Osborn, Akash R. Wasil, Huong Le, Emily Corrigan, Christine Wasanga and John R. Weisz

    Citation: Trials 2021 22:829

    Content type: Study protocol

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  9. It is unclear whether screening for sepsis using an electronic alert in hospitalized ward patients improves outcomes. The objective of the Stepped-wedge Cluster Randomized Trial of Electronic Early Notificatio...

    Authors: Yaseen M. Arabi, Ramesh Kumar Vishwakarma, Hasan M. Al-Dorzi, Eman Al Qasim, Sheryl Ann Abdukahil, Fawaz K. Al-Rabeah, Huda Al Ghamdi and Ebtisam Al Ghamdi

    Citation: Trials 2021 22:828

    Content type: Update

    Published on:

    The Study protocol to this article has been published in Trials 2021 22:695

  10. Due to ongoing political and social conflicts, the number of international refugees has been increasing. Refugees are exposed to severe mental and physical strain, as well as traumatic experiences during their...

    Authors: Markus Gerber, Flora Colledge, Dominique de Quervain, Konstantinia Filippou, Elsa Havas, Florian Knappe, Sebastian Ludyga, Marianne Meier, Ioannis D. Morres, Alexandros Panagos, Uwe Pühse, Karim Ramadan, Harald Seelig, Yannis Theodorakis, Roland von Känel and Antonis Hatzigeorgiadis

    Citation: Trials 2021 22:827

    Content type: Study protocol

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  11. In the Netherlands, more than half of the teachers working in primary education experience high levels of work stress. Compared to other professions, teachers are more likely to drop out from work and develop ...

    Authors: J. H. Lensen, S. E. M. J. Stoltz, M. Kleinjan, A. E. M. Speckens, J. T. Kraiss and R. H. J. Scholte

    Citation: Trials 2021 22:826

    Content type: Study protocol

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  12. While there is strong evidence that bite protection methods such as permethrin-treated clothing and topical insect repellents are protective against insect bites, there are few studies assessing the impact on ...

    Authors: Daniel Msellemu, Amanda Ross, Lucky Temu, Irene Moshi, Lorenz Hofer, Charles Mwanziva, Yadon M. Kohi and Sarah J. Moore

    Citation: Trials 2021 22:825

    Content type: Study protocol

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  13. Knee osteoarthritis (KOA) is one of the most common musculoskeletal disorders. Acupotomy may be effective for KOA, but the evidence is limited. This trial aims to determine the effectiveness and safety of acup...

    Authors: Shu-Ming Li, Tian-Li Li, Ren Guo, Ping Chen, Wei-Shuai Du, Si-Bo Kang, Ming-Zhe Yan and Wu-Zhong Cheng

    Citation: Trials 2021 22:824

    Content type: Study protocol

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  14. Pelvic floor muscle training (PFMT) exercises and neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) are described as conservative interventions to prevent or treat female stress urinary incontinence (SUI). However, ...

    Authors: Bianca Manzan Reis, Jordana Barbosa da Silva, Ana Paula Rodrigues Rocha, Richard Eloin Liebano and Patricia Driusso

    Citation: Trials 2021 22:823

    Content type: Study protocol

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  15. Mass drug administration (MDA) of praziquantel is one of the main control measures against human schistosomiasis. Although there are claims for including pregnant women, infants and children under the age of 5...

    Authors: Daniela Fusco, Raphäel Rakotozandrindrainy, Rivo Andry Rakotoarivelo, Mala Rakoto Andrianarivelo, Njary Rakotozandrindrainy, Tahinamandranto Rasamoelina, Dewi Ismajani Puradiredja, Philipp Klein, Karl Stahlberg, Marie Dechenaud, Eva Lorenz, Anna Jaeger, Andrea Kreidenweiss, Pytsje T. Hoekstra, Akim Ayola Adegnika, Elisa Sicuri…

    Citation: Trials 2021 22:822

    Content type: Study protocol

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  16. Many people living with epilepsy (PLWE) reside in rural communities, and epilepsy self-management may help address some of the gaps in epilepsy care for these communities. A prior randomized control trial of a...

    Authors: Gena R. Ghearing, Farren Briggs, Kristin Cassidy, Michael Privitera, Carol Blixen and Martha Sajatovic

    Citation: Trials 2021 22:821

    Content type: Study protocol

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  17. Intermittent preventive treatment in pregnancy (IPTp) with sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) is recommended by the World Health Organization for the prevention of malaria in pregnancy (MIP)-associated adverse out...

    Authors: Jean-Bertin Bukasa Kabuya, Matthew M. Ippolito, Jay Sikalima, Clifford Tende, Davies Champo, David Mwakazanga, Anna Marie P. Young, Modest Mulenga, Gershom Chongwe and Christine Manyando

    Citation: Trials 2021 22:820

    Content type: Study protocol

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  18. Authors: Leandro Meirelles Nunes, Jordana Führ, Christy Hannah Sanini Belin, Paula Ruffoni Moreira, Renata Oliveira Neves, Mariana Lopes de Brito, Lorenzo Andreazza Morando, Adriela Azevedo Souza Mariath, Erissandra Gomes and Juliana Rombaldi Bernardi

    Citation: Trials 2021 22:819

    Content type: Correction

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    The original article was published in Trials 2021 22:687

  19. Positive Choices is a whole-school social marketing intervention to promote sexual health among secondary school students. Intervention comprises school health promotion council involving staff and students co...

    Authors: Ruth Ponsford, Rebecca Meiksin, Elizabeth Allen, G. J. Melendez-Torres, Steve Morris, Catherine Mercer, Rona Campbell, Honor Young, Maria Lohan, Karin Coyle and Chris Bonell

    Citation: Trials 2021 22:818

    Content type: Study protocol

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  20. Selective registration, publication, and outcome reporting of clinical trials distort the primary clinical evidence that is available to patients and clinicians regarding the safety and efficacy of US Food and...

    Authors: Matthew J. Swanson, James L. Johnston and Joseph S. Ross

    Citation: Trials 2021 22:817

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  21. Mucopolysaccharidoses (MPS) are a group of inherited metabolic diseases characterized by chronic, progressive multi-system manifestations with varying degrees of severity. Disease-modifying therapies exist to ...

    Authors: Alison H. Howie, Kylie Tingley, Michal Inbar-Feigenberg, John J. Mitchell, Nancy J. Butcher, Martin Offringa, Maureen Smith, Kim Angel, Jenifer Gentle, Alexandra Wyatt, Philippe M. Campeau, Alicia Chan, Pranesh Chakraborty, Farah El Turk, Eva Mamak, Aizeddin Mhanni…

    Citation: Trials 2021 22:816

    Content type: Study protocol

    Published on:

    The Correction to this article has been published in Trials 2021 22:893

  22. Shoulder function complications are common after treatment for breast cancer. Quite a few survivors still report a limited shoulder range of motion, even though the free range-of-motion upper limb exercise is ...

    Authors: Ru-Zhen Yuan, Kun-Peng Li, Xiao-Lin Wei, Wei Zheng, Yi Ye, Ming-Yue Wang, Jie-Ting Jiang and Cai-Qin Wu

    Citation: Trials 2021 22:815

    Content type: Study protocol

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  23. Healthcare systems must use treatments that are effective and safe. Regulators licensed many currently used older medications before introducing the stringent evidential requirements imposed on modern treatmen...

    Authors: Amy Rogers, Angela Flynn, Isla S. Mackenzie, Lewis McConnachie, Rebecca Barr, Robert W. V. Flynn, Steve Morant, Thomas M. MacDonald and Alexander Doney

    Citation: Trials 2021 22:814

    Content type: Study protocol

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  24. Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) evaluating ectopic pregnancy have reported many different outcomes, which are themselves often defined and measured in distinct ways. This level of variation results in an i...

    Authors: Krystle Y. Chong, Sarah Solangon, James Kemper, Kurt Barnhart, Pamela Causa Andrieu, Perrine Capmas, Carolina Chacon, George Condous, Liesl de Waard, James M. N. Duffy, Andrew Horne, Maria Memtsa, Femke Mol, Munira Oza, Annika Strandell, Madelon van Wely…

    Citation: Trials 2021 22:813

    Content type: Study protocol

    Published on:

  25. The outcome of endodontic treatment is generally assessed using a range of patient and clinician-centred, non-standardised clinical and radiographic outcome measures. This makes it difficult to synthesise evid...

    Authors: I. A. El Karim, H. F. Duncan, S. Cushley, V. Nagendrababu, L. L. Kirkevang, C. Kruse, B. S. Chong, P. K. Shah, M. Lappin, C. McLister, F. T. Lundy and M. Clarke

    Citation: Trials 2021 22:812

    Content type: Study protocol

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  26. Emergence agitation (EA) after general anesthesia is a common complication in the post-anesthesia care unit (PACU). Once EA occurs, there are still no guidelines established for the treatment in adults. Propof...

    Authors: Zhaoyan Feng, Xiao Shi, Xue Yan, Yamin Zhu, Juan Gu, Hao Zhu, Weifeng Yu and Song Zhang

    Citation: Trials 2021 22:811

    Content type: Study protocol

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  27. Unhealthy alcohol use is a leading cause of preventable deaths in the USA and is associated with many societal and health problems. Less than a third of people who visit primary care providers in the USA are a...

    Authors: Daniel E. Jonas, Colleen Barclay, Debbie Grammer, Chris Weathington, Sarah A. Birken, Darren A. DeWalt, Kimberly A. Shoenbill, Marcella H. Boynton, Monique Mackey, Sean Riley and Samuel Cykert

    Citation: Trials 2021 22:810

    Content type: Study protocol

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  28. The aim of this paper is to describe the utility of various recruitment modalities utilized in the Working to Increase Stability through Exercise (WISE) study. WISE is a pragmatic randomized trial that is test...

    Authors: Christopher N. Sciamanna, Noel H. Ballentine, Melissa Bopp, Vernon M. Chinchilli, Joseph T. Ciccolo, Gabrielle Delauter, Abigail Fisher, Edward J. Fox, Suzanne M. Jan De Beur, Kalen Kearcher, Jennifer L. Kraschnewski, Erik Lehman, Kathleen M. McTigue, Edward McAuley, Anuradha Paranjape, Sol Rodriguez-Colon…

    Citation: Trials 2021 22:809

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

    The Correction to this article has been published in Trials 2022 23:34

  29. Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) is a promising strategy to break COVID-19 transmission. Although hydroxychloroquine was evaluated for treatment and post-exposure prophylaxis, it is not evaluated for COVID-19 P...

    Authors: Berta Grau-Pujol, Daniel Camprubí-Ferrer, Helena Marti-Soler, Marc Fernández-Pardos, Clara Carreras-Abad, Maria Velasco-de Andrés, Elisabet Ferrer, Magdalena Muelas-Fernandez, Sophie Jullien, Giuseppe Barilaro, Sara Ajanovic, Isabel Vera, Laura Moreno, Eva Gonzalez-Redondo, Núria Cortes-Serra, Montserrat Roldán…

    Citation: Trials 2021 22:808

    Content type: Research

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  30. Gas embolism induced by CO2 pneumoperitoneum is commonly identified as a risk factor for morbidity, especially cardiopulmonary morbidity, after laparoscopic liver resection (LLR) in adults. Increasing pneumoperit...

    Authors: Danfeng Jin, Mingyue Liu, Jian Huang, Yongfeng Xu, Luping Liu, Changhong Miao and Jing Zhong

    Citation: Trials 2021 22:807

    Content type: Study protocol

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  31. Laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (LSG) has become an increasing bariatric procedure. The basic principle is to create a narrow stomach along the lesser curvature, using a calibration bougie as a template to per...

    Authors: Martin Gaillard, Panagiotis Lainas, Hélène Agostini, Ibrahim Dagher and Hadrien Tranchart

    Citation: Trials 2021 22:806

    Content type: Study protocol

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  32. Percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL) is the standard surgical treatment method for large kidney stones. Its aim is to achieve a stone-free status, since any residual fragments (RFs) after PCNL are likely to cau...

    Authors: R. A. Kingma, I. J. de Jong, M. J. W. Greuter and S. Roemeling

    Citation: Trials 2021 22:805

    Content type: Study protocol

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  33. Low-dose naltrexone (LDN) is used widely as an off-label treatment for pain despite limited evidence for its effectiveness. A few small trials with a high risk of bias have investigated the effect of LDN on pa...

    Authors: Karin Due Bruun, Kirstine Amris, Henrik Bjarke Vaegter, Morten Rune Blichfeldt-Eckhardt, Anders Holsgaard-Larsen, Robin Christensen and Palle Toft

    Citation: Trials 2021 22:804

    Content type: Study protocol

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  34. Although the relationship between deqi sensations and curative effect has always been controversial, deqi sensations has been regarded as the key indicator of clinical efficacy of acupuncture therapy. There is li...

    Authors: Yingqi Chen, Yu Bian, Shanshan Li, Yuanyuan Zhao, Jiaying Li, Yuanyi Zheng, Jie Chen, Shifen Xu and Yiqun Mi

    Citation: Trials 2021 22:803

    Content type: Study protocol

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  35. Because of the effect of vitamins on modulating the immune system function, we have evaluated the effect of supplementation with vitamins A, B, C, D, and E in ICU-admitted patients with COVID-19.

    Authors: Mohammad Taghi Beigmohammadi, Sama Bitarafan, Azin Hoseindokht, Alireza Abdollahi, Laya Amoozadeh and Danesh Soltani

    Citation: Trials 2021 22:802

    Content type: Research

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  36. Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is one of the main causes of chronic liver disease worldwide. Flavonoids, a group of natural compounds, have garnered a great deal of attention in the management of NA...

    Authors: Fatemeh Naeini, Zahra Namkhah, Helda Tutunchi, Seyed Mahdi Rezayat, Siavash Mansouri, Seyed Ali Jazayeri-Tehrani, Mehdi Yaseri and Mohammad Javad Hosseinzadeh-Attar

    Citation: Trials 2021 22:801

    Content type: Study protocol

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  37. Postoperative pain is a common problem that occurs in pediatric patients following neurosurgery which may lead to severe complications. Dexmedetomidine is a commonly used adjuvant medicine in craniotomy owing ...

    Authors: Yuan Zhang, Di Bao, Dongmei Chi, Lu Li, Bin Liu, Di Zhang, Lanxin Qiao, Yi Liang, Yaxin Wang and Xu Jin

    Citation: Trials 2021 22:800

    Content type: Study protocol

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  38. Painful diabetic peripheral neuropathy (PDPN) has a great impact on an individual’s quality of life. The current researchers’ previous trial suggested that acupuncture was a promising adjunctive treatment for ...

    Authors: Mengyuan Li, Lin Yao, Haipeng Huang, Liying Zhang, Haizhu Zheng, Guan Wang, Zhen Zhong, Shiqi Ma, Shuo Yu and Hongfeng Wang

    Citation: Trials 2021 22:799

    Content type: Study protocol

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  39. Unstable angina pectoris (UAP) is the common type of coronary heart disease with the risk of developing into acute myocardial infarction (AMI). Currently, there are still numerous patients suffering from recur...

    Authors: Pan-pan Tian, Qing-juan Wu, Jun Li, Heng-wen Chen, Ji Wu, Ya-wen Deng, Zi-cong Xie, Wei Zhao and Yu-qing Tan

    Citation: Trials 2021 22:798

    Content type: Study protocol

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  40. Pressure dressings have been used after open hemorrhoidectomy to protect surgical wounds and manage postoperative bleeding for many years. However, pressure dressings may increase the incidence of postoperativ...

    Authors: Ping Xue, Jing Wu, Ping Zhu, Dan Wang, Mei Xu, Yi Zhang, Guanmao Lu, Quanyi Chen, Qin Zhang, Renjin Tang and Jinbo Fang

    Citation: Trials 2021 22:797

    Content type: Study protocol

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  41. The advised standard treatment for bacterial brain abscess following surgery is 6 to 8 weeks of intravenous (IV) antibiotic treatment, but an early switch to oral antibiotic treatment has been suggested to be ...

    Authors: Jacob Bodilsen, Matthijs C. Brouwer, Diederik van de Beek, Pierre Tattevin, Steven Tong, Pontus Naucler and Henrik Nielsen

    Citation: Trials 2021 22:796

    Content type: Study protocol

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  42. Primary prevention trials have demonstrated that the traditional Mediterranean diet is associated with a reduction in cardiovascular mortality and morbidity. However, this benefit has not been proven for secon...

    Authors: Ana I. Fernández, Javier Bermejo, Raquel Yotti, Miguel Ángel Martínez-Gonzalez, Alex Mira, Uri Gophna, Roger Karlsson, Reem Al-Daccak, Irene Martín-Demiguel, Enrique Gutiérrez-Ibanes, Dominique Charron and Francisco Fernández-Avilés

    Citation: Trials 2021 22:795

    Content type: Study protocol

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  43. Different approaches have been used by dentists to base their decision. Among them, there are the aesthetical issues that may lead to more interventionist approaches. Indeed, using a more interventionist strat...

    Authors: Raíza Dias Freitas, Bruna Lorena Pereira Moro, Laura Regina Antunes Pontes, Haline Cunha Medeiros Maia, Ana Laura Passaro, Rodolfo Carvalho Oliveira, Jonathan Rafael Garbim, Maria Eduarda Franco Vigano, Tamara Kerber Tedesco, Christopher Deery, Daniela Prócida Raggio, Maximiliano Sergio Cenci, Fausto Medeiros Mendes and Mariana Minatel Braga

    Citation: Trials 2021 22:794

    Content type: Study protocol

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  44. There is an urgent need to develop new therapies to improve cognitive function in adults following cochlear implant surgery. This study aims to determine if completing at-home computer-based brain training act...

    Authors: Blake J. Lawrence, Robert H. Eikelboom and Dona M. P. Jayakody

    Citation: Trials 2021 22:793

    Content type: Study protocol

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  45. Alcohol consumption causes a spectrum of liver abnormalities and leads to over 3 million deaths per year. Alcoholic hepatitis (AH) is a florid presentation of alcoholic liver disease characterized by liver fai...

    Authors: N. Vergis, V. Patel, K. Bogdanowicz, J. Czyzewska-Khan, F. Fiorentino, E. Day, M. Cross, N. Foster, E. Lord, R. Goldin, E. Forrest and M. Thursz

    Citation: Trials 2021 22:792

    Content type: Study protocol

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  46. Problems continue to exist with the reporting quality and risk of bias in search methods and strategies in systematic reviews and related review types. Peer reviewers who are not familiar with what is required...

    Authors: Melissa L. Rethlefsen, Sara Schroter, Lex M. Bouter, David Moher, Ana Patricia Ayala, Jamie J. Kirkham and Maurice P. Zeegers

    Citation: Trials 2021 22:791

    Content type: Study protocol

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  47. Raising children in new social and cultural contexts can be challenging for parents. In order to help parents address these challenges, the Norwegian government has instituted a policy of mandatory parent trai...

    Authors: Joshua Patras, Merete Saus, Marcela Douglas, Ragnhild Bjørknes, Siri Gammelsæter, Lene-Mari Potulski Rasmussen, Therese Halvorsen, Ida Mari Haug, Ragnhild Risholm, Tuva Øktedalen, Reidar Jakobsen and Simon Peter Neumer

    Citation: Trials 2021 22:790

    Content type: Study protocol

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  48. Evidence from previous studies is often used relatively informally in the design of clinical trials: for example, a systematic review to indicate whether a gap in the current evidence base justifies a new tria...

    Authors: Gemma L. Clayton, Daisy Elliott, Julian P. T. Higgins and Hayley E. Jones

    Citation: Trials 2021 22:789

    Content type: Research

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  49. The majority of older people (> 65 years) in hospital have frailty and are at increased risk of readmission or death following discharge home. In the UK, following acute hospitalisation, around one third of ol...

    Authors: Matthew Prescott, Amanda Lilley-Kelly, Bonnie Cundill, David Clarke, Sian Drake, Amanda J. Farrin, Anne Forster, Madeline Goodwin, Victoria A. Goodwin, Abi J. Hall, Suzanne Hartley, Mike Holland, Claire Hulme, Silviya Nikolova, Catriona Parker, Phil Wright…

    Citation: Trials 2021 22:783

    Content type: Study protocol

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