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  1. Content type: Research

    Remifentanil is widely used for ultrasound-guided percutaneous radiofrequency ablation (RFA) of small hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). We determined whether dexmedetomidine could be an alternative to remifentan...

    Authors: Jingru Pan, Xianlong Li, Ye He, Chaojun Jian, Hui-xin Chen, Ziqing Hei and Shaoli Zhou

    Citation: Trials 2019 20:28

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  2. Content type: Study protocol

    Paracetamol (acetaminophen) overdose (POD) is the commonest cause of acute liver failure in Europe and North America. Current treatment involves the use of the antidote N-acetylcysteine (NAC) in patients deeme...

    Authors: James Dear

    Citation: Trials 2019 20:27

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  3. Content type: Study protocol

    Tobacco use is presently responsible for the death of over seven million people across the world. In Qatar, it is one of the main causes of premature deaths and preventable diseases. To reduce tobacco use, Qat...

    Authors: Maguy Saffouh El Hajj, Ahmed Awaisu, Nadir Kheir, Mohamad Haniki Nik Mohamed, Rula Shami Haddad, Rana Ahmed Saleh, Noora Mohammed Alhamad, Ahmad Mohd Almulla and Ziyad R. Mahfoud

    Citation: Trials 2019 20:25

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  4. Content type: Study protocol

    Prediabetes describes a state of hyperglycemia outside of normal limits that does not meet the criteria for diabetes diagnosis, is generally symptomless, and affects an estimated 38% of adults in the United St...

    Authors: Termeh Feinberg, L. Susan Wieland, Larry E. Miller, Kashif Munir, Toni I. Pollin, Alan R. Shuldiner, Steve Amoils, Lisa Gallagher, Mary Bahr-Robertson and Christopher R. D’Adamo

    Citation: Trials 2019 20:24

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  5. Content type: Study protocol

    Patients with colorectal cancer (CRC) often present with associated anaemia which is usually present at the time of diagnosis and is aggravated during the postoperative period due to blood loss during the surg...

    Authors: María Jesús Laso-Morales, Roser Vives, Andrea Vallejo-Tarrat, Novella Caló, Anna Valle-Beltran and Caridad Pontes

    Citation: Trials 2019 20:23

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  6. Content type: Study protocol

    Emergence agitation (EA) is a common postoperative issue in children that causes self-injury, increases stress on healthcare team members, and even leads to postoperative maladaptive behavioral changes in chil...

    Authors: Hui Zhang, Qing Fan, Junfeng Zhang, Bin Wu, Xiaofeng Wang, Yu Zhang and Aizhong Wang

    Citation: Trials 2019 20:22

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  7. Content type: Methodology

    Research involving brain imaging is important for understanding common brain diseases. Study endpoints can include features and measures derived from imaging modalities, providing a benchmark against which oth...

    Authors: Stewart J. Wiseman, Rozanna Meijboom, Maria del C. Valdés Hernández, Cyril Pernet, Eleni Sakka, Dominic Job, Adam D. Waldman and Joanna M. Wardlaw

    Citation: Trials 2019 20:21

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  8. Content type: Study protocol

    Patients undergoing gynaecological surgery are known to experience anxiety. While the use of music selected by patients based on their personal taste has hardly been evaluated, a recent study suggests that mus...

    Authors: Tiphaine Petot, Nicolas Bouscaren, Olivier Maillard, Laetitia Huiart, Malik Boukerrou and Danielle Reynaud

    Citation: Trials 2019 20:20

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  9. Content type: Study protocol

    Stroke often results in chronic disability, with partners and family members taking on the role of informal caregiver. There is considerable uncertainty regarding how best to identify and address carers’ needs...

    Authors: Emma Patchwood, Katy Rothwell, Sarah Rhodes, Evridiki Batistatou, Kate Woodward-Nutt, Yiu-Shing Lau, Gunn Grande, Gail Ewing and Audrey Bowen

    Citation: Trials 2019 20:19

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  10. Content type: Study protocol

    Oncological patients often feel left out of important treatment decisions. However, when physicians engage them in shared decision-making (SDM), patients benefit in many ways and the situation is improved. SDM...

    Authors: Nicole Müller, Kathrin M. Gschwendtner, Sarah Dwinger, Corinna Bergelt, Wolfgang Eich, Martin Härter and Christiane Bieber

    Citation: Trials 2019 20:18

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  11. Content type: Study protocol

    Norwegian health, care, and welfare services are experiencing increased demands to deliver services that are safe, effective, of high quality, and that ensure user involvement. Yet, evidence-based treatment fo...

    Authors: Kristine Amlund Hagen, Asgeir Røyrhus Olseth, Hanne Laland, Kristian Rognstad, Anett Apeland, Elisabeth Askeland, Knut Taraldsen, Bernadette Christensen, John Kjøbli, Ana M. Ugueto, Sarah Kate Bearman and John Weisz

    Citation: Trials 2019 20:16

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  12. Content type: Study protocol

    Robot-assisted gait training (RAGT) was developed to restore gait function by promoting neuroplasticity through repetitive locomotor training and has been utilized in gait training. However, contradictory outc...

    Authors: Min-Gu Kang, Seo Jung Yun, Hyun Iee Shin, Eunkyung Kim, Hyun Haeng Lee, Byung-Mo Oh and Han Gil Seo

    Citation: Trials 2019 20:15

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  13. Content type: Study protocol

    Hyperlipidemia, defined as elevated lipid levels, is the primary and major risk factor for atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. Several studies have evaluated the effects of Chinese medicine (CM) on hyperli...

    Authors: Geng Li, Li Zhou, Wenwei Ouyang, Meiling Xuan, Liming Lu, Xiaoyan Li, Zehuai Wen and Xiankun Chen

    Citation: Trials 2019 20:14

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  14. Content type: Study protocol

    Burns are a painful and traumatic experience, particularly in children. Reduced pain and anxiety positively influences re-epithelialisation rates in paediatric burn patients, however current literature fails t...

    Authors: Maleea D. Holbert, Bronwyn R. Griffin, Steven M. McPhail, Robert S. Ware, Kelly Foster, Demi C. Bertoni and Roy M. Kimble

    Citation: Trials 2019 20:13

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  15. Content type: Methodology

    Recent recommendations promote the inclusion of people living with dementia beyond the role of ‘participant’ to involvement in all areas of the research process. This reflects shifts in dementia studies from ‘...

    Authors: Hazel Morbey, Andrew J. E. Harding, Caroline Swarbrick, Faraz Ahmed, Ruth Elvish, John Keady, Paula R. Williamson and Siobhan T. Reilly

    Citation: Trials 2019 20:12

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  16. Content type: Study protocol

    Second-hand smoke (SHS) is a serious health hazard costing 890,000 lives a year globally. Women and children in many economically developing countries are worst affected as smoke-free laws are only partially i...

    Authors: Noreen Mdege, Caroline Fairhurst, Tarana Ferdous, Catherine Hewitt, Rumana Huque, Cath Jackson, Ian Kellar, Steve Parrott, Sean Semple, Aziz Sheikh, Shilpi Swami and Kamran Siddiqi

    Citation: Trials 2019 20:11

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  17. Content type: Study protocol

    There is a great need for a prospective randomized trial to evaluate the risks and benefits of opportunistic salpingectomy. Recently, genetic and morphologic studies have indicated that epithelial ovarian canc...

    Authors: Annika Idahl, Anna Darelius, Karin Sundfeldt, Mathias Pålsson and Annika Strandell

    Citation: Trials 2019 20:10

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  18. Content type: Study protocol

    Gestational diabetes (GDM) is associated with an increased lifetime risk for the development of glucose abnormalities, metabolic syndrome, cardiovascular disease, depression and tumours. Despite this high risk...

    Authors: Delia Bogdanet, Aoife Egan, Narjes Fhelelboom, Linda Biesty, Shakila Thangaratinam, Eugene Dempsey, Caroline Crowther, Declan Devane and Fidelma Dunne

    Citation: Trials 2019 20:9

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  19. Content type: Study protocol

    While acupuncture’s mechanism of action is not fully understood, there is consensus that the nervous system plays a key role in processing its effects. This research is based on the structural theory of acupun...

    Authors: Alexandra Dimitrova, Charles Murchison and Barry Oken

    Citation: Trials 2019 20:8

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  20. Content type: Research

    Poor clinical trial enrollment continues to be pervasive and is especially problematic among young adults and youth, and among minorities. Efforts to address barriers to enrollment have been predominantly focu...

    Authors: Joan E. Cowdery, James H. Powell, Yolanda A. Fleming and Devin L. Brown

    Citation: Trials 2019 20:7

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  21. Content type: Study protocol

    In people with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), limb-muscle dysfunction is one of the most troublesome systemic manifestations of the disease, which at the functional level is evidenced by reduced...

    Authors: Erik Frykholm, Peter Klijn, Didier Saey, Hieronymus W. H. van Hees, Per Stål, Thomas Sandström, Ann Sörlin, François Maltais and André Nyberg

    Citation: Trials 2019 20:6

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  22. Content type: Research

    Chiropractic manipulative therapy (CMT) has been shown to improve reaction time in some clinical studies. Slight changes in reaction time can be critical for military personnel, such as special operation force...

    Authors: James W. DeVocht, Robert Vining, Dean L. Smith, Cynthia Long, Thomas Jones and Christine Goertz

    Citation: Trials 2019 20:5

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  23. Content type: Study protocol

    Postpartum haemorrhage remains a major cause of maternal mortality and morbidity worldwide. Active management of the third stage of labour reduces the risk of postpartum haemorrhage. Oxytocin and oxytocin/ergo...

    Authors: Helen van der Nelson, Stephen O’Brien, Erik Lenguerrand, Elsa Marques, Mary Alvarez, Michelle Mayer, Sara Burnard, Dimitrios Siassakos and Timothy Draycott

    Citation: Trials 2019 20:4

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  24. Content type: Study protocol

    Cough variant asthma (CVA) is one of the leading causes of chronic coughing. The main treatment is currently anti-inflammatory medication. However, the coughing may return or be aggravated and lung function ma...

    Authors: Rong-rong Fan, Ze-huai Wen, Da-wei Wang, Rong-yuan Yang, Ai-hua Ou, Lian-shun Jin, Zhong-de Zhang and Yun-tao Liu

    Citation: Trials 2019 20:3

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  25. Content type: Study protocol

    Falls reflect sentinel events in older adults, with significant negative consequences. Although fall risk factors have been identified as intrinsic (e.g., muscle weakness, balance problems) and extrinsic (e.g....

    Authors: Marianne Granbom, Lindy Clemson, Laken Roberts, Melissa D. Hladek, Safiyyah M. Okoye, Minhui Liu, Cynthia Felix, David L. Roth, Laura N. Gitlin and Sarah Szanton

    Citation: Trials 2019 20:2

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  26. Content type: Study protocol

    Adequate bowel preparation is required for magnetic resonance enterography (MRE), which can be achieved by administering contrast solution after mid-gut tubing or taking contrast solution orally. We present th...

    Authors: Min Dai, Ting Zhang, Qianqian Li, Bota Cui, Liyuan Xiang, Xiao Ding, Rong Rong, Jianling Bai, Jianguo Zhu and Faming Zhang

    Citation: Trials 2019 20:1

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  27. Content type: Study protocol

    Familial Mediterranean fever (FMF) is an inherited disorder caused by a number of mutations of the Mediterranean fever (MEFV) gene, coding a protein named pyrin that acts as a major regulatory component of the in...

    Authors: Tomohiro Koga, Shuntaro Sato, Junya Miyamoto, Naoko Hagimori, Yurika Kawazoe, Kumiko Arinaga, Chizu Fukushima, Hiroshi Yamamoto and Atsushi Kawakami

    Citation: Trials 2018 19:715

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  28. Content type: Study protocol

    In Norway, a disproportionately high number of children receiving Child Welfare Services (CWS) struggle academically and drop out of school. Academic attainment is one of the strongest protective factors again...

    Authors: Thomas Engell, Ingvild Barbara Follestad, Anne Andersen and Kristine Amlund Hagen

    Citation: Trials 2018 19:714

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  29. Content type: Study protocol

    Numerous studies suggest that exercise may be an effective adjunct treatment for substance use disorders. It has been suggested that exercise-induced improvements in inhibitory control may reduce craving for t...

    Authors: Flora Colledge, Sebastian Ludyga, Manuel Mücke, Uwe Pühse and Markus Gerber

    Citation: Trials 2018 19:713

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  30. Content type: Study protocol

    Postpartum haemorrhage (PPH) is responsible for about 100,000 maternal deaths every year, most of which occur in low- and middle-income countries. Tranexamic acid (TXA) reduces bleeding by inhibiting the enzym...

    Authors: Katharine Ker, Ian Roberts, Rizwana Chaudhri, Bukola Fawole, Danielle Beaumont, Eni Balogun, Danielle Prowse, Tracey Pepple, Kiran Javaid, Aasia Kayani, Sabaratnam Arulkumaran, Imelda Bates and Haleema Shakur-Still

    Citation: Trials 2018 19:712

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  31. Content type: Study protocol

    Palpitations and pre-syncope are together responsible for 300,000 annual Emergency Department (ED) attendances in the United Kingdom (UK). Diagnosis of the underlying rhythm is difficult as many patients are f...

    Authors: Matthew J. Reed, Neil R. Grubb, Christopher C. Lang, Rachel O’Brien, Kirsty Simpson, Mia Padarenga, Alison Grant and Sharon Tuck

    Citation: Trials 2018 19:711

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  32. Content type: Study protocol

    Adolescent HIV patients face enormous difficulty in accessing HIV care services. Given their vulnerability to risk-taking behaviour, this group also have worse treatment outcomes compared to other age groups. ...

    Authors: Obinna Ikechukwu Ekwunife, Maureen Ugonwa Anetoh, Stephen Okorafor Kalu, Prince Udegbulam Ele and George Uchenna Eleje

    Citation: Trials 2018 19:710

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  33. Content type: Study protocol

    A primary concern within the healthcare system is to make treatment more accessible as well as attractive for the great majority of alcohol-dependent people who feel reluctant to participate in the treatment p...

    Authors: Anna-Karin Danielsson, Andreas Lundin and Sven Andréasson

    Citation: Trials 2018 19:709

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  34. Content type: Study protocol

    Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) increases the risk of adverse short- and long-term outcomes, including development of type 2 diabetes. The US Diabetes Prevention Program demonstrates this risk can be halve...

    Authors: Karoline Kragelund Nielsen, Sharleen O’Reilly, Nancy Wu, Kaberi Dasgupta and Helle Terkildsen Maindal

    Citation: Trials 2018 19:708

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  35. Content type: Study protocol

    Despite the high prevalence of insomnia in patients with advanced cancer, there are no randomized controlled trials on pharmacological interventions for insomnia in this group of patients. A variety of pharmac...

    Authors: Gunnhild Jakobsen, Morten Engstrøm, Ørnulf Paulsen, Karin Sjue, Sunil X. Raj, Morten Thronæs, Marianne Jensen Hjermstad, Stein Kaasa, Peter Fayers and Pål Klepstad

    Citation: Trials 2018 19:707

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  36. Content type: Study protocol

    Current treatments for adolescents with substance use disorder (SUD) have had only limited success. In recent years, research has underlined the role of self-regulatory processes and impulsivity in the develop...

    Authors: Christiane Baldus, Laura Mokros, Anne Daubmann, Nicolas Arnaud, Martin Holtmann, Rainer Thomasius and Tanja Legenbauer

    Citation: Trials 2018 19:706

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  37. Content type: Study protocol

    Lower urinary tract symptoms related to benign prostatic obstruction (BPO) are frequent in men aged > 50 years. Based on the use of innovative medical devices, a number of transurethral ablative techniques hav...

    Authors: Hélène Charbonneau, Marie Pasquié, Benoit Peyronnet, Aurélien Descazeaud, Nicolas Barry-Delongchamps, Emmanuel Della Negra, Romain Mathieu, Gilles Karsenty, Jean-Alexandre Long, Charles Ballereau, Abdel-Rahmène Azzouzi, Benjamin Pradère, Franck Bruyère, Georges Fournier, Souhil Lebdai, Jehanne Calves…

    Citation: Trials 2018 19:705

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  38. Content type: Research

    This study aimed to describe recruitment challenges encountered during a phase IIa study of vixotrigine, a state and use-dependent Nav1.7 channel blocker, in individuals with trigeminal neuralgia.

    Authors: Joanna M. Zakrzewska, Joanne Palmer, Lars Bendtsen, Giulia Di Stefano, Dominik A. Ettlin, Stine Maarbjerg, Mark Obermann, Valerie Morisset, Deb Steiner, Simon Tate and Giorgio Cruccu

    Citation: Trials 2018 19:704

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  39. Content type: Correction

    In the original publication [1], the first of two objectives was to “Assess the effect of periodically treating water storage containers with a pyriproxyfen/spinosad combination on entomological and epidemiolo...

    Authors: Hans J. Overgaard, Chamsai Pientong, Kesorn Thaewnongiew, Michael J. Bangs, Tipaya Ekalaksananan, Sirinart Aromseree, Thipruethai Phanitchat, Supranee Phanthanawiboon, Benedicte Fustec, Vincent Corbel, Dominique Cerqueira and Neal Alexander

    Citation: Trials 2018 19:703

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    The original article was published in Trials 2018 19:122

  40. Content type: Correction

    After publication of our article [1] we became aware that several sections of text in our Methods section were copied from a previously published article [2].

    Authors: Luciana G. Langella, Paula F. C. Silva, Larissa Costa-Santos, Marcela L. L. Gonçalves, Lara J. Motta, Alessandro M. Deana, Kristianne P. S. Fernandes, Raquel A. Mesquita-Ferrari and Sandra Kalil Bussadori

    Citation: Trials 2018 19:702

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    The original article was published in Trials 2018 19:71

  41. Content type: Study protocol

    Skin-to-skin contact (SSC) is an evidence-based intervention that benefits low birth weight /preterm infants. However, China’s health institutional policy inhibits parents from visiting their baby in the neona...

    Authors: Qingqi Deng, Qiufang Li, Hua Wang, Huilian Sun and Xinfen Xu

    Citation: Trials 2018 19:701

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  42. Content type: Study protocol

    Developing non-pharmacological interventions with strong potential to prevent or delay the onset of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) in high-risk populations is critical. Aerobic exercise and cognitive training are tw...

    Authors: Fang Yu, Feng Vankee Lin, Dereck L. Salisbury, Krupa N. Shah, Lisa Chow, David Vock, Nathaniel W. Nelson, Anton P. Porsteinsson and Clifford Jack Jr.

    Citation: Trials 2018 19:700

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  43. Content type: Research

    Poor participant understanding of research information can be a problem in community interventional studies with rural African women, whose levels of illiteracy are high. This study aimed to improve the inform...

    Authors: J. Ditai, J. Kanyago, M. R. Nambozo, N. M. Odeke, J. Abeso, J. Dusabe-Richards, P. Olupot-Olupot, E. D. Carrol, A. Medina-Lara, M. Gladstone, J. Storr, B. Faragher and A. D. Weeks

    Citation: Trials 2018 19:699

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  44. Content type: Study protocol

    Providing appropriate support and care for end-of-life patients and their relatives is a major concern and a daily responsibility for intensivists. Bereaved relatives of non-surviving patients in intensive car...

    Authors: Nancy Kentish-Barnes, Sylvie Chevret and Elie Azoulay

    Citation: Trials 2018 19:698

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  45. Content type: Study protocol

    Benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV) is the most common peripheral vestibular disorder, and accounts for 8% of individuals with moderate or severe dizziness. BPPV patients experience substantial inconve...

    Authors: William J. Meurer, Kathryn E. Beck, Brigid Rowell, Devin Brown, Alexander Tsodikov, Angela Fagerlin, Steven A. Telian, Laura Damschroder, Lawrence C. An, Lewis B. Morgenstern, Misty Ujhely, Laura Loudermilk, Sandeep Vijan and Kevin A. Kerber

    Citation: Trials 2018 19:697

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  46. Content type: Study protocol

    Alcoholic hepatitis (AH) has the most severe presentation among alcohol-related liver diseases. Corticosteroids are the most widely recommended treatment for severe AH. However, more innovative, refined treatm...

    Authors: Yuri Cho, Youn Su Park, Hwi Young Kim, Won Kim, Heon Ju Lee and Dong Joon Kim

    Citation: Trials 2018 19:696

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  47. Content type: Study protocol

    Onset of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is preceded by a preclinical phase characterized by expression of autoantibodies and nonspecific clinical symptoms. Hydroxychloroquine is a treatment for lupus that ...

    Authors: Nancy J. Olsen, Judith A. James, Cristina Arriens, Mariko L. Ishimori, Daniel J. Wallace, Diane L. Kamen, Benjamin F. Chong, Duanping Liao, Vernon M. Chinchilli and David R. Karp

    Citation: Trials 2018 19:694

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  48. Content type: Study protocol

    Multidrug-resistant (MDR) tuberculosis (TB) presents a challenge for global TB control. Treating individuals with MDR-TB infection to prevent progression to disease could be an effective public health strategy...

    Authors: James A. Seddon, Anthony J. Garcia-Prats, Susan E. Purchase, Muhammad Osman, Anne-Marie Demers, Graeme Hoddinott, Angela M. Crook, Ellen Owen-Powell, Margaret J. Thomason, Anna Turkova, Diana M. Gibb, Lee Fairlie, Neil Martinson, H. Simon Schaaf and Anneke C. Hesseling

    Citation: Trials 2018 19:693

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  49. Content type: Retraction Note

    Citation: Trials 2018 19:692

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    The original article was published in Trials 2012 13:157

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