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  1. Smartphone-based support can reach thousands of smokers and help those who would otherwise try to quit smoking by themselves with little chance of success. Nicotine medications double the chances of quitting s...

    Authors: Jean-François Etter and Yasser Khazaal

    Citation: Trials 2020 21:449

    Content type: Study protocol

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  2. Coronary artery diseases (CAD) remains a severe socio-economic burden in the Western world. Coronary obstruction and subsequent myocardial ischemia result in progressive replacement of contractile myocardium w...

    Authors: Leo Pölzl, Felix Nägele, Michael Graber, Jakob Hirsch, Daniela Lobenwein, Martina Mitrovic, Agnes Mayr, Markus Theurl, Michael Schreinlechner, Matthias Pamminger, Christian Dorfmüller, Michael Grimm, Can Gollmann-Tepeköylü and Johannes Holfeld

    Citation: Trials 2020 21:447

    Content type: Study protocol

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  3. Patients affected by hepatic cirrhosis show reductions in muscle mass and function, with poor quality of life and functional performance. As such, resistance training with blood flow restriction (BFR-RT) could...

    Authors: Sanmy Rocha Nóbrega, Silvana Gama Florencio Chachá and Cleiton Augusto Libardi

    Citation: Trials 2020 21:446

    Content type: Study protocol

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  4. There is increasing international recognition that populations included in trials should adequately represent the population treated in clinical practice; however, adults who lack the capacity to provide infor...

    Authors: Victoria Shepherd

    Citation: Trials 2020 21:445

    Content type: Commentary

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  5. Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) is an increasingly common intervention in the treatment of pancreaticobiliary disorders. Patients are often elderly with complex co-morbidities. While moni...

    Authors: Venkatesan Thiruvenkatarajan, Ashok Dharmalingam, Gilberto Arenas, Medhat Wahba, Reinhard Steiner, Vasanth Rao Kadam, Andre Tran, John Currie, Roelof Van Wijk, Anthony Quail and Guy Ludbrook

    Citation: Trials 2020 21:444

    Content type: Study protocol

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  6. Unemployment rates are higher among people with mental health issues/illness (MHI) than in the general working population, and many of them face the dilemma of whether or not to disclose their MHI when searchi...

    Authors: K. M. E. Janssens, J. van Weeghel, C. Henderson, M. C. W. Joosen and E. P. M. Brouwers

    Citation: Trials 2020 21:443

    Content type: Study protocol

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  7. The purpose of this study will be to improve diabetes prevention, access to care and advocacy through a novel cost-effective nurse-led continuum of care approach that incorporates diabetes prevention, awarenes...

    Authors: Dong ( Roman) Xu, Rubee Dev, Abha Shrestha, Lingling Zhang, Archana Shrestha, Pushpanjali Shakya, James P. Hughes, Prabin Raj Shakya, Jinghua Li, Jing Liao and Biraj Man Karmacharya

    Citation: Trials 2020 21:442

    Content type: Study protocol

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  8. Benefits to patients from reduced depression have been shown from monitoring progress with patient-reported outcome measures (PROMs) in psychological therapy and mental health settings. This approach has not y...

    Authors: Tony Kendrick, Michael Moore, Geraldine Leydon, Beth Stuart, Adam W. A. Geraghty, Guiqing Yao, Glyn Lewis, Gareth Griffiths, Carl May, Rachel Dewar-Haggart, Samantha Williams, Shihua Zhu and Christopher Dowrick

    Citation: Trials 2020 21:441

    Content type: Study protocol

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  9. More than half of patients with rheumatoid arthritis complain of insomnia, which is predominantly treated with hypnotic drugs. However, cognitive behavioural therapy for insomnia is recommended as the first-li...

    Authors: K. M. Latocha, K. B. Løppenthin, M. Østergaard, P. J. Jennum, R. Christensen, M. Hetland, H. Røgind, T. Lundbak, J. Midtgaard and B. A. Esbensen

    Citation: Trials 2020 21:440

    Content type: Study protocol

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  10. Prescribing, monitoring and administration of medicines in care homes could be improved. A cluster randomised controlled trial (RCT) is ongoing to evaluate the effectiveness of an independent prescribing pharm...

    Authors: Christine M. Bond, Richard Holland, David P. Alldred, Antony Arthur, Garry Barton, Linda Birt, Annie Blyth, James Desborough, Joanna Ford, Christine Handford, Helen Hill, Carmel M. Hughes, Vivienne Maskrey, Kate Massey, Phyo K. Myint, Nigel Norris…

    Citation: Trials 2020 21:439

    Content type: Study protocol

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  11. An amendment to this paper has been published and can be accessed via the original article.

    Authors: Min-Gu Kang, Seo Jung Yun, Hyun Iee Shin, Eunkyung Kim, Hyun Haeng Lee, Byung-Mo Oh and Han Gil Seo

    Citation: Trials 2020 21:438

    Content type: Correction

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    The original article was published in Trials 2019 20:15

  12. Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is the most common acute leukemia in adults and has an unacceptably low cure rate. In recent years, a number of new treatment strategies and compounds were developed for the treatm...

    Authors: Katharina M. Lang, Kathryn L. Harrison, Paula R. Williamson, Brian J. P. Huntly, Gert Ossenkoppele, Jan Geissler, Tamàs Bereczky, Jesús M. Hernández-Rivas, Hélène Chevrou-Séverac, Rory Goodbody, Renate Schulze-Rath and Lars Bullinger

    Citation: Trials 2020 21:437

    Content type: Study protocol

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  13. Parkinson’s disease (PD) affects approximately 145,519 people in the UK. Speech impairments are common with a reported prevalence of 68%, which increase physical and mental demands during conversation, relianc...

    Authors: C. M. Sackley, C. Rick, P. Au, M. C. Brady, G. Beaton, C. Burton, M. Caulfield, S. Dickson, F. Dowling, M. Hughes, N. Ives, S. Jowett, P. Masterson-Algar, A. Nicoll, S. Patel, C. H. Smith…

    Citation: Trials 2020 21:436

    Content type: Study protocol

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  14. There are limited treatment options that clinicians can provide to children presenting to emergency departments with vomiting secondary to acute gastroenteritis. Based on evidence of effectiveness and safety, ...

    Authors: Stephen B. Freedman, Sarah Williamson-Urquhart, Anna Heath, Petros Pechlivanoglou, Gareth Hopkin, Serge Gouin, Amy C. Plint, Andrew Dixon, Darcy Beer, Gary Joubert, Christopher McCabe, Yaron Finkelstein and Terry P. Klassen

    Citation: Trials 2020 21:435

    Content type: Study protocol

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  15. Patients with high-grade gliomas (HGG) often suffer from high distress and require psychosocial support. However, due to neurological and neurocognitive deficits, adequate assessment of distress and support ne...

    Authors: Mirjam Renovanz, Melina Hippler, Martin Voss, Jens Wehinger, Almuth F. Keßler, Jens Gempt, Minou Nadji-Ohl, Carolin Weiß Lucas, Marion Rapp, Martin Misch, Jan Coburger, Marcus Mehlitz, Jürgen Meixensberger, Naureen Keric, Ghazaleh Tabatabai, Maria Blettner…

    Citation: Trials 2020 21:434

    Content type: Study protocol

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  16. Patient outcomes can depend on the treating centre, or health professional, delivering the intervention. A health professional’s skill in delivery improves with experience, meaning that outcomes may be associa...

    Authors: Elizabeth J. Conroy, Jane M. Blazeby, Girvan Burnside, Jonathan A. Cook and Carrol Gamble

    Citation: Trials 2020 21:433

    Content type: Methodology

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  17. Suffering linked to previous interpersonal trauma is common among patients in mental health care. Diagnostic labels may vary, but the clinical picture is often characterized by long-lasting and complex psychol...

    Authors: K. H. Holgersen, I. Brønstad, M. Jensen, H. Brattland, S. K. Reitan, A. M. Hassel, M. Arentz, M. Lara-Cabrera and A. E. Skjervold

    Citation: Trials 2020 21:432

    Content type: Study protocol

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  18. Neutropenic sepsis remains a common treatment complication for patients receiving systemic anti-cancer treatment. The UK National Institute for Health and Care Excellence have not recommended switching from em...

    Authors: Caroline Forde, Ronan McMullan, Mike Clarke, Richard H. Wilson, Ruth Plummer, Margaret Grayson, Cliona McDowell, Ashley Agus, Annmarie Doran, Danny F. McAuley, Anne L. Thomas, Rosemary A. Barnes, Richard Adams, Ian Chau and Vicky Coyle

    Citation: Trials 2020 21:431

    Content type: Study protocol

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  19. Citation: Trials 2020 21:430

    Content type: Letter

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  20. The AWED (Applying Wolbachia to Eliminate Dengue) trial is a parallel, two-arm, non-blinded cluster randomised controlled trial that is under way in Yogyakarta, Indonesia, with the aim of measuring the efficacy o...

    Authors: Katherine L. Anders, Citra Indriani, Riris Andono Ahmad, Warsito Tantowijoyo, Eggi Arguni, Bekti Andari, Nicholas P. Jewell, Suzanne M. Dufault, Peter A. Ryan, Stephanie K. Tanamas, Edwige Rancès, Scott L. O’Neill, Cameron P. Simmons and Adi Utarini

    Citation: Trials 2020 21:429

    Content type: Update

    Published on:

    The Study protocol to this article has been published in Trials 2018 19:302

  21. Delayed graft function, the requirement for dialysis due to poor kidney function post-transplant, is a frequent complication of deceased donor kidney transplantation and is associated with inferior outcomes an...

    Authors: Michael G. Collins, Magid A. Fahim, Elaine M. Pascoe, Kathryn B. Dansie, Carmel M. Hawley, Philip A. Clayton, Kirsten Howard, David W. Johnson, Colin J. McArthur, Rachael C. McConnochie, Peter F. Mount, Donna Reidlinger, Laura Robison, Julie Varghese, Liza A. Vergara, Laurence Weinberg…

    Citation: Trials 2020 21:428

    Content type: Study protocol

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  22. Cochrane, an organization dedicated to the production and dissemination of high-quality evidence on health, endeavors to reach consumers by developing appropriate summary formats of its systematic reviews. How...

    Authors: Ivan Buljan, Ružica Tokalić, Marija Roguljić, Irena Zakarija-Grković, Davorka Vrdoljak, Petra Milić, Livia Puljak and Ana Marušić

    Citation: Trials 2020 21:426

    Content type: Research

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  23. The evidence-based guideline entitled guideline evidence-based health information emerged from the German Network for Evidence-based Medicine (DNEbM) and was published in February 2017. The guideline addresses pr...

    Authors: Julia Lühnen, Birte Berger-Höger, Burkhard Haastert, Jana Hinneburg, Jürgen Kasper and Anke Steckelberg

    Citation: Trials 2020 21:425

    Content type: Study protocol

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  24. Radiotherapy of head-and-neck cancer can be associated with significant toxicities including dermatitis and oral mucositis. Severe toxicities may require interruptions of the radiation treatment associated wit...

    Authors: Dirk Rades, Carlos Andres Narvaez, Claudia Doemer, Stefan Janssen, Denise Olbrich, Soeren Tvilsted, Antonio J. Conde-Moreno and Jon Cacicedo

    Citation: Trials 2020 21:424

    Content type: Study protocol

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  25. As an irreversible, intractable disease with vision loss, glaucoma leads to permanent and progressive damage of visual function. Lowering high intraocular pressure (HIOP) is the first choice for treating glauc...

    Authors: Hongji Liu, Xiang Li, Zongduan Zhang, Jieping Zeng, Yan Dai, Chao Wang, Zhao Xie, Lin Cheng and Linru Cui

    Citation: Trials 2020 21:423

    Content type: Study protocol

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  26. Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by a novel corinavirus (later named SARS-CoV-2 virus), was fistly reported in Wuhan, Hubei Province, China towards the end of 2019. Large-scale spread within China a...

    Authors: Yeming Wang, Fei Zhou, Dingyu Zhang, Jianping Zhao, Ronghui Du, Yi Hu, Zhenshun Cheng, Ling Gao, Yang Jin, Guangwei Luo, Shouzhi Fu, Qiaofa Lu, Guanhua Du, Ke Wang, Yang Lu, Guohui Fan…

    Citation: Trials 2020 21:422

    Content type: Study protocol

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  27. Chronic pain is highly prevalent in the working population. People tend to attempt self-initiated treatments to manage their pain. The self-efficacy of behavioural change is a suitable model for guiding the de...

    Authors: Shuk Kwan Tang, Mimi Mun Yee Tse, Sau Fong Leung and Theofanis Fotis

    Citation: Trials 2020 21:421

    Content type: Study protocol

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  28. The emergence of new molecular targeted drugs provides new prospects for the treatment of advanced breast cancer; the future therapeutic trend includes chemotherapy combined ...

    Authors: Shuo Wu, Liang Zhang, Huan Li, Junnan Xu, Cui Jiang and Tao Sun

    Citation: Trials 2020 21:420

    Content type: Study protocol

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  29. Around one in ten adults take antidepressants for depression in England, and their long-term use is increasing. Some need them to prevent relapse, but 30–50% could possibly stop them without relapsing and avoi...

    Authors: Tony Kendrick, Adam W. A. Geraghty, Hannah Bowers, Beth Stuart, Geraldine Leydon, Carl May, Guiqing Yao, Wendy O’Brien, Marta Glowacka, Simone Holley, Samantha Williams, Shihua Zhu, Rachel Dewar-Haggart, Bryan Palmer, Margaret Bell, Sue Collinson…

    Citation: Trials 2020 21:419

    Content type: Study protocol

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  30. Subacute thyroiditis (SAT) is the most common cause of thyroid pain. Several clinical guidelines recommend that patients who fail to respond to full doses of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) shou...

    Authors: Shaoyong Xu, Yuxin Jiang, Aihua Jia, Juan Zhang, Bin Gao, Jing Xu, Xiaorui Jing, Yang Jiao, Jia Wei, Wenlei Xu, Ruikun Chen, Ling Gao and Lei Shang

    Citation: Trials 2020 21:418

    Content type: Study protocol

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  31. Disruptive behavior in hospitalized patients has become a priority area of safety concern for clinical staff, and also has consequences for patient management and hospital course. Proactive screening and inter...

    Authors: Jay Morrison, Michele Hasselblad, Ruth Kleinpell, Reagan Buie, Deborah Ariosto, Erin Hardiman, Stephen W. Osborn and Christopher J. Lindsell

    Citation: Trials 2020 21:417

    Content type: Study protocol

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  32. Efficacy of conventional treatment plus the complementary therapy Liu-zi-jue (a mind-body exercise) to treat patients with mild COVID-19.

    Authors: Shuaipan Zhang, Zhizhen Lv, Qingguang Zhu, Wuquan Sun, Fei Yao, Lei Fang, Yanbin Cheng, Zhiwei Wu and Min Fang

    Citation: Trials 2020 21:416

    Content type: Letter

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  33. Treatment with beta-blockers is currently recommended after myocardial infarction (MI). The evidence relies on trials conducted decades ago before implementation of revascularization and contemporary medical t...

    Authors: Anna Meta Dyrvig Kristensen, Ann Bovin, Ann Dorthe Zwisler, Charlotte Cerquira, Christian Torp-Pedersen, Hans Erik Bøtker, Ida Gustafsson, Karsten Tange Veien, Kristian Korsgaard Thomsen, Michael Hecht Olsen, Mogens Lytken Larsen, Olav Wendelboe Nielsen, Per Hildebrandt, Sussie Foghmar, Svend Eggert Jensen, Theis Lange…

    Citation: Trials 2020 21:415

    Content type: Study protocol

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  34. Chronic venous insufficiency (CVI) causes pathophysiological changes in the lower-limb muscles, particularly the calf muscles, and limits ankle range of motion (ROM). These changes reduce functional activities...

    Authors: Esther Fernandes Tinoco Volpe, Vanessa R. Resqueti, Ana Aline Marcelino da Silva, Lucien Peroni Gualdi and Guilherme A. F. Fregonezi

    Citation: Trials 2020 21:414

    Content type: Study protocol

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  35. Eliminating hepatitis C is hampered by the costs of direct-acting antiviral treatment and the need to treat hard-to-reach populations. Access could be widened by shortening or simplifying treatment, but limite...

    Authors: Leanne McCabe, Ian R. White, Nguyen Van Vinh Chau, Eleanor Barnes, Sarah L. Pett, Graham S. Cooke and A. Sarah Walker

    Citation: Trials 2020 21:413

    Content type: Methodology

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  36. Febrile neutropaenia (FN) is a very common complication in patients with haematological malignancies and is associated with considerable morbidity and mortality. Broad-spectrum antipseudomonal β-lactam antibio...

    Authors: J. Laporte-Amargos, C. Gudiol, M. Arnan, P. Puerta-Alcalde, F. Carmona-Torre, M. Huguet, A. Albasanz-Puig, R. Parody, C. Garcia-Vidal, J. L. del Pozo, M. Batlle, C. Tebé, R. Rigo-Bonnin, C. Muñoz, A. Padullés, F. Tubau…

    Citation: Trials 2020 21:412

    Content type: Study protocol

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  37. The rising number of nursing home (NH) residents and their increasingly complex treatment needs pose a challenge to the German health care system. In Germany, there is no specialized geriatric medical care for...

    Authors: Alexandra Piotrowski, Martha Meyer, Iris Burkholder, Dagmar Renaud, Markus Alexander Müller, Thorsten Lehr, Sonja Laag, Joachim Meiser, Lisa Manderscheid and Juliane Köberlein-Neu

    Citation: Trials 2020 21:411

    Content type: Study protocol

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  38. Cold hypersensitivity in the hands and feet (CHHF) commonly affects Asian women, especially Korean women, and it negatively impacts the quality of life of the affected individuals. One commonly used herbal pre...

    Authors: Kyou-Young Lee, In-Sik Han, Ho-Yeon Go, Dong-Nyung Lee, Jun-Sang Yu and Seung-Ho Sun

    Citation: Trials 2020 21:410

    Content type: Study protocol

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  39. Early mobilization has been proven effective for patients in intensive care units (ICUs) to improve functional recovery. However, early mobilization of critically ill, often mechanically ventilated, patients i...

    Authors: Robin C. H. Kwakman, Juultje Sommers, Janneke Horn, Frans Nollet, Raoul H. H. Engelbert and Marike van der Schaaf

    Citation: Trials 2020 21:409

    Content type: Study protocol

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  40. Insomnia seriously affects people’s normal lives and work. However, effective treatment strategies are scarce. The purpose of this study is to explore the efficacy and safety of Jiao-tai-wan (JTW) for ameliora...

    Authors: Congcong Zeng, Xi Liu, Lufeng Hu, Yuan Feng, Nengzhi Xia, Haihuan Zeng, Lin Luo, Ren Ye and Zhengzhong Yuan

    Citation: Trials 2020 21:408

    Content type: Study protocol

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  41. A chest X-ray is a standard imaging procedure in the diagnostic work-up of patients suspected of having non-traumatic pulmonary disease. Compared to a chest X-ray, an ultra-low-dose (ULD) chest computed tomogr...

    Authors: Maadrika M. N. P. Kanglie, Shandra Bipat, Inge A. H. van den Berk, Tjitske S. R. van Engelen, Marcel G. W. Dijkgraaf, Jan M. Prins, Jaap Stoker and Patrick M. M. Bossuyt

    Citation: Trials 2020 21:407

    Content type: Update

    Published on:

    The Protocol to this article has been published in Diagnostic and Prognostic Research 2018 2:20

  42. Previous studies suggested that acupuncture was a promising adjunctive treatment for asthma. However, the underlying mechanism of acupuncture for asthma remains unclear. The aim of the present trial is to expl...

    Authors: Siyi Yu, Xiaohui Dong, Ruirui Sun, Zhaoxuan He, Chuantao Zhang, Mei Chen, Xiaojuan Hong, Lei Lan and Fang Zeng

    Citation: Trials 2020 21:406

    Content type: Study protocol

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  43. Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) rupture is a common knee injury that can lead to poor quality of life, decreased activity and increased risk of secondary osteoarthritis of the knee. Management of patients wit...

    Authors: Loretta Davies, Jonathan Cook, Jose Leal, Carlos Morgado Areia, Beverly Shirkey, William Jackson, Helen Campbell, Heidi Fletcher, Andrew Carr, Karen Barker, Sarah E. Lamb, Paul Monk, Sean O’Leary, Fares Haddad, Chris Wilson, Andrew Price…

    Citation: Trials 2020 21:405

    Content type: Study protocol

    Published on:

  44. Previous research suggests that both cognitive training and physical exercise help to maintain brain health and cognitive functions that decline with age. Some studies indicate that combined interventions may ...

    Authors: Soledad Ballesteros, Jennifer A. Rieker, Julia Mayas, Antonio Prieto, Pilar Toril, María Pilar Jiménez and José Manuel Reales

    Citation: Trials 2020 21:404

    Content type: Study protocol

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  45. Office-based workers accumulate high amounts of sitting time. Stand More At Work (SMArT Work) aimed to reduce occupational sitting time and a cluster randomised controlled trial demonstrated it was successful ...

    Authors: Stuart J. H. Biddle, Sophie E. O’Connell, Melanie J. Davies, David Dunstan, Charlotte L. Edwardson, Dale W. Esliger, Laura J. Gray, Thomas Yates and Fehmidah Munir

    Citation: Trials 2020 21:403

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  46. This study aims to assess the effectiveness of delivering Solution Focused Brief Therapy (SFBT) through telecommunication with a group of adolescents who present anxiety symptoms during the COVID-19 outbreak. ...

    Authors: Shitao Chen

    Citation: Trials 2020 21:402

    Content type: Letter

    Published on:

  47. An individualized treatment algorithm (Copenhagen Achilles Rupture Treatment Algorithm (CARTA)) based on the ultrasonographic appearance of an acute Achilles tendon rupture has been developed aiming to select ...

    Authors: Maria Swennergren Hansen, Marianne Toft Vestermark, Per Hölmich, Morten Tange Kristensen and Kristoffer Weisskirchner Barfod

    Citation: Trials 2020 21:399

    Content type: Study protocol

    Published on:

  48. Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most frequent cardiac arrhythmia which increases the risk of thromboembolic complications and impairs quality of life. An important part of a therapeutic approach for AF is sinu...

    Authors: Rafał Dąbrowski, Paweł Syska, Justyna Mączyńska, Michał Farkowski, Stefan Sawicki, Agata Kubaszek-Kornatowska, Piotr Michałek, Ilona Kowalik, Hanna Szwed and Tomasz Hryniewiecki

    Citation: Trials 2020 21:397

    Content type: Study protocol

    Published on:

  49. Modified Sijunzi decoction (SJZD) has been used to treat ulcerative colitis (UC) in remission. However, more rigorous clinical trials are necessary to evaluate its effectiveness. Therefore, a series of single-cas...

    Authors: Yi-ming Chen, Jie-min Deng, Yi Wen, Bin Chen, Jiang-tao Hou, Bin Peng, Shi-jing Zhang, Hong Mi, Qi-long Jiang, Xia-lin Wu, Feng-bin Liu and Xin-lin Chen

    Citation: Trials 2020 21:396

    Content type: Study protocol

    Published on:

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