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  1. Dry eye is usually managed by conventional medical interventions such as artificial tears, anti-inflammatory drugs and surgical treatment. However, since dry eye is one of the most frequent ophthalmologic diso...

    Authors: Tae-Hun Kim, Jong-In Kim, Mi-Suk Shin, Myeong Soo Lee, Jun-Yong Choi, So-Yong Jung, Ae-Ran Kim, Jae-Uk Seol and Sun-Mi Choi
    Citation: Trials 2009 10:112
  2. Cerebral oedema is associated with significant neurological damage in patients with traumatic brain injury. Bradykinin is an inflammatory mediator that may contribute to cerebral oedema by increasing the perme...

    Authors: Haleema Shakur, Peter Andrews, Toomas Asser, Laura Balica, Cristian Boeriu, Juan Diego Ciro Quintero, Yashbir Dewan, Patrick Druwé, Olivia Fletcher, Chris Frost, Bennie Hartzenberg, Jorge Mejia Mantilla, Francisco Murillo-Cabezas, Jan Pachl, Ramalingam R Ravi, Indrek Rätsep…
    Citation: Trials 2009 10:109
  3. The UK has a strong tradition of innovative evaluative health care research. There are, however, considerable forces impeding collaboration between clinicians, academics, patients and their advocates and indus...

    Authors: Clive E Adams and Mauricio Silva de Lima
    Citation: Trials 2009 10:108
  4. Bleeding is a frequent complication during surgery. The intraoperative administration of blood products, including packed red blood cells, platelets and fresh frozen plasma (FFP), is often live saving. Complic...

    Authors: Natalie Urwyler, Sven Trelle, Lorenz Theiler, Peter Jüni, Lukas P Staub, Cedric Luyet, Lorenzo Alberio, Kay Stricker and Robert Greif
    Citation: Trials 2009 10:107
  5. Clinical trials evaluating the use of hypertonic saline in the treatment of hypovolemia and head trauma suggest no survival superiority over normal saline; however subgroup analyses suggest there may be a redu...

    Authors: Laurie J Morrison, Sandro B Rizoli, Brian Schwartz, Shawn G Rhind, Merita Simitciu, Tyrone Perreira, Russell MacDonald, Anna Trompeo, Donald T Stuss, Sandra E Black, Alex Kiss and Andrew J Baker
    Citation: Trials 2009 10:105
  6. Preeclampsia (PE) is a common maternal disease that complicates 5 to 10% of pregnancies and remains as the major cause of maternal and neonatal mortality. Cost-effective interventions aimed at preventing the d...

    Authors: Robinson Ramírez-Vélez, Ana C Aguilar, Mildrey Mosquera, Ronald G Garcia, Laura M Reyes and Patricio López-Jaramillo
    Citation: Trials 2009 10:104
  7. Exercise therapies generate substantial costs in computer workers with non-specific work-related upper limb disorders (WRULD).

    Authors: Marjon D van Eijsden, Sylvia A Gerhards, Rob A de Bie and Johan L Severens
    Citation: Trials 2009 10:103
  8. Idiopathic recurrent miscarriage is defined as 3 consecutive pregnancy losses with no contributing features found on investigations. At present there are no treatments of proven efficacy for idiopathic recurre...

    Authors: Ai-Wei Tang, Zarko Alfirevic, Mark A Turner, Jo Drury and Siobhan Quenby
    Citation: Trials 2009 10:102
  9. Subgroup analyses in randomized trials examine whether effects of interventions differ between subgroups of study populations according to characteristics of patients or interventions. However, findings from s...

    Authors: Xin Sun, Matthias Briel, Jason W Busse, Elie A Akl, John J You, Filip Mejza, Malgorzata Bala, Natalia Diaz-Granados, Dirk Bassler, Dominik Mertz, Sadeesh K Srinathan, Per Olav Vandvik, German Malaga, Mohamed Alshurafa, Philipp Dahm, Pablo Alonso-Coello…
    Citation: Trials 2009 10:101
  10. With 2.5 million new HIV infections per year, effective preventive methods against HIV are urgently needed, especially in sub-Saharan Africa. MDP301 is an ongoing trial of the vaginal microbicide PRO 2000/5 be...

    Authors: Andrew Nunn, Sheena McCormack, Angela M Crook, Robert Pool, Clare Rutterford and Richard Hayes
    Citation: Trials 2009 10:99
  11. Previous randomized trials have showed the superiority of Paclitaxel-eluting stent over bare metal stent in angiographic and clinical outcomes. Coroflex Please™ stent is a newly developed drug eluting stent us...

    Authors: Jae-Bin Seo, Hui-Kyung Jeon, Kyung-Woo Park, Jong-Seon Park, Jang-Ho Bae, Sang-Wook Kim, Keon-Woong Moon, Jae-Woong Choi, Sang-Gon Lee, Woo-Young Chung, Tae-Jin Youn, Soo-Joong Kim, Doo-Il Kim, Byung-Ok Kim, Min-Su Hyon, Keum-Soo Park…
    Citation: Trials 2009 10:98
  12. Two different approaches have been adopted when applying motor imagery (MI) to stroke patients. MI can be conducted either added to conventional physiotherapy or integrated within therapy sessions. The propose...

    Authors: Corina Schuster, Jenny Butler, Brian Andrews, Udo Kischka and Thierry Ettlin
    Citation: Trials 2009 10:97
  13. Chronic back pain is a major public health problem and the primary reason patients seek massage treatment. Despite the growing use of massage for chronic low back pain, there have been few studies of its effec...

    Authors: Daniel C Cherkin, Karen J Sherman, Janet Kahn, Janet H Erro, Richard A Deyo, Sebastien J Haneuse and Andrea J Cook
    Citation: Trials 2009 10:96
  14. Thorough knowledge of the regulatory requirements is a challenging prerequisite for conducting multinational clinical studies in Europe given their complexity and heterogeneity in regulation and perception acr...

    Authors: Christine Kubiak, Fernando de Andres-Trelles, Wolfgang Kuchinke, Karl-Heinz Huemer, Steffen Thirstrup, Kate Whitfield, Christian Libersa, Béatrice Barraud, Xina Grählert, Gabriele Dreier, Ruth Grychtol, Zsuzsa Temesvari, Gyorgy Blasko, Gabriella Kardos, Timothy O'Brien, Margaret Cooney…
    Citation: Trials 2009 10:95
  15. Intraoperative haemorrhage is a known predictor for perioperative outcome of patients undergoing hepatic resection. While anaesthesiological lowering of central venous pressure (CVP) by fluid restriction is kn...

    Authors: Nuh N Rahbari, Johannes B Zimmermann, Moritz Koch, Thomas Bruckner, Thomas Schmidt, Heike Elbers, Christoph Reissfelder, Markus A Weigand, Markus W Büchler and Jürgen Weitz
    Citation: Trials 2009 10:94
  16. Even though depression and anxiety are highly prevalent in adolescence, youngsters are not inclined to seek help in regular healthcare. Therapy through the Internet, however, has been found to appeal strongly ...

    Authors: Willemijn Hoek, Josien Schuurmans, Hans M Koot and Pim Cuijpers
    Citation: Trials 2009 10:93
  17. Depression Care for People with Lung Cancer is a complex intervention delivered by specially trained cancer nurses, under the supervision of a psychiatrist. It is given as a supplement to the usual care for depr...

    Authors: Jane Walker, Jim Cassidy and Michael Sharpe
    Citation: Trials 2009 10:92
  18. The development of suture hole bleeding at peripheral arterial bypass anastomoses using PTFE graft prostheses is a common problem in peripheral vascular surgery. Traditionally the problem is managed by compres...

    Authors: Petra Baumann, Hardy Schumacher, Johannes Hüsing, Steffen Luntz and Hanns-Peter Knaebel
    Citation: Trials 2009 10:91
  19. Administration of abciximab during primary percutaneous coronary intervention is an effective adjunctive therapy in the treatment of patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction. Recent small-scale...

    Authors: Youlan L Gu, Marieke L Fokkema, Marthe A Kampinga, Bart JGL de Smet, Eng S Tan, Ad FM van den Heuvel and Felix Zijlstra
    Citation: Trials 2009 10:90
  20. Anterior open treatment of the inguinal hernia with a tension free mesh has reduced the incidence of recurrence and direct postoperative pain. The Lichtenstein procedure rules nowadays as reference technique f...

    Authors: Giel G Koning, Hans JP de Schipper, Henk JM Oostvogel, Michiel HJ Verhofstad, Pieter G Gerritsen, Kees CJHM van Laarhoven and Patrick WHE Vriens
    Citation: Trials 2009 10:89
  21. Structured education programmes for individuals with Type 1 diabetes have become a recognised means of delivering the knowledge and skills necessary for optimal self-management of the condition. The Dose Adjus...

    Authors: Seán F Dinneen, Mary Clare O' Hara, Molly Byrne, John Newell, Lisa Daly, Donal O' Shea and Diarmuid Smith
    Citation: Trials 2009 10:88
  22. The objectives are to compare the effectiveness of cell phone-supported SMS messaging to standard care on adherence, quality of life, retention, and mortality in a population receiving antiretroviral therapy (...

    Authors: Richard T Lester, Edward J Mills, Antony Kariri, Paul Ritvo, Michael Chung, William Jack, James Habyarimana, Sarah Karanja, Samson Barasa, Rosemary Nguti, Benson Estambale, Elizabeth Ngugi, T Blake Ball, Lehana Thabane, Joshua Kimani, Lawrence Gelmon…
    Citation: Trials 2009 10:87
  23. Comparing the effectiveness of interventions is now a requirement for regulatory approval in several countries. It also aids in clinical and public health decision-making. However, in the absence of head-to-he...

    Authors: Christopher O'Regan, Isabella Ghement, Oghenowede Eyawo, Gordon H Guyatt and Edward J Mills
    Citation: Trials 2009 10:86
  24. Maternal and perinatal mortality are major problems for which progress in sub-Saharan Africa has been inadequate, even though childbirth services are available, even in the poorest countries. Reducing them is ...

    Authors: Alexandre Dumont, Pierre Fournier, William Fraser, Slim Haddad, Mamadou Traore, Idrissa Diop, Mouhamadou Gueye, Alioune Gaye, François Couturier, Jean-Charles Pasquier, François Beaudoin, André Lalonde, Marie Hatem and Michal Abrahamowicz
    Citation: Trials 2009 10:85
  25. ICU stay is often associated with negative experiences for the individual patient. Many patients are disabled and their communication is restricted during the ICU stay. Specific information on procedures, sens...

    Authors: Steffen Fleischer, Almuth Berg, Thomas R Neubert, Michael Koller, Johann Behrens, Ralf Becker, Annegret Horbach, Joachim Radke, Mathias Rothmund and Oliver Kuss
    Citation: Trials 2009 10:84
  26. Falls in hospitals are common, resulting in injury and anxiety to patients, and large costs to NHS organisations. More than half of all in-patient falls in elderly people in acute care settings occur at the be...

    Authors: Catherine D Vass, Opinder Sahota, Avril Drummond, Denise Kendrick, John Gladman, Tracey Sach, Mark Avis and Matthew Grainge
    Citation: Trials 2009 10:83
  27. Many patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) require a combination of antidiabetic drugs with complementary mechanisms of action to lower their hemoglobin A1c levels to achieve therapeutic targets and reduce the ris...

    Authors: Yoshiharu Horie, Naoyuki Hayashi, Klaus Dugi and Masahiro Takeuchi
    Citation: Trials 2009 10:82
  28. Weaning is the process during which mechanical ventilation is withdrawn and the work of breathing is transferred from the ventilator back to the patient. Prolonged weaning is associated with development of ven...

    Authors: Karen EA Burns, Maureen O Meade, Martin R Lessard, Sean P Keenan and Francois Lellouche
    Citation: Trials 2009 10:81
  29. After its introduction, laparoscopic cholecystectomy rapidly expanded around the world and was accepted the procedure of choice by consensus. However, analysis of evidence shows no difference regarding primary...

    Authors: Frederik Keus, Trudy de Jonge, Hein G Gooszen, Erik Buskens and Cornelis JHM van Laarhoven
    Citation: Trials 2009 10:80
  30. Research on the effects of treating sub-threshold depression in persons with diabetes is scarce in spite of the findings indicating that this condition is highly prevalent in the diabetic population and may in...

    Authors: Mirjana Pibernik-Okanovic, Drazen Begic, Dea Ajdukovic, Natasa Andrijasevic and Zeljko Metelko
    Citation: Trials 2009 10:78
  31. There is no clear evidence that early decompression following spinal cord injury (SCI) improves neurologic outcome. Such information must be obtained from randomized controlled trials (RCTs). To date no large ...

    Authors: Vafa Rahimi-Movaghar, Soheil Saadat, Alexander R Vaccaro, Seyed Mohammad Ghodsi, Mohammad Samadian, Arya Sheykhmozaffari, Seyed Mohammad Safdari and Bahram Keshmirian
    Citation: Trials 2009 10:77
  32. Online technology is a promising resource for conducting clinical research. While the internet may improve a study's reach, as well as the efficiency of data collection, it may also introduce a number of chall...

    Authors: Lorraine R Buis, Adrienne W Janney, Michael L Hess, Silas A Culver and Caroline R Richardson
    Citation: Trials 2009 10:76
  33. Acupuncture is widely used in China to treat functional dyspepsia (FD). However, its effectiveness in the treatment of FD, and whether FD-specific acupoints exist, are controversial. So this study aims to dete...

    Authors: Hui Zheng, Xiao-ping Tian, Ying Li, Fan-rong Liang, Shu-guang Yu, Xu-guang Liu, Yong Tang, Xu-guang Yang, Jie Yan, Guo-jie Sun, Xiao-rong Chang, Hong-xing Zhang, Ting-ting Ma and Shu-yuan Yu
    Citation: Trials 2009 10:75
  34. Tinnitus, the perception of sound and noise in absence of an auditory stimulus, has been shown to be associated with maladaptive neuronal reorganization and increased activity of the temporoparietal cortex. Tr...

    Authors: Carola Arfeller, Reinhard Vonthein, Stefan K Plontke and Christian Plewnia
    Citation: Trials 2009 10:74
  35. An estimated 2–3 million people are acutely poisoned by organophosphorus pesticides each year, mostly in the developing world. There is a pressing need for new affordable antidotes and clonidine has been shown...

    Authors: Polwattage M S Perera, Shaluka F Jayamanna, Raja Hettiarachchi, Chandana Abeysinghe, Harindra Karunatilake, Andrew H Dawson and Nick A Buckley
    Citation: Trials 2009 10:73
  36. Fractures of the long bones and femur fractures in particular are common in multiple trauma patients, but the optimal management of femur fractures in these patients is not yet resolved. Although there is a tr...

    Authors: Dieter Rixen, Eva Steinhausen, Stefan Sauerland, Rolf Lefering, Matthias Meier, Marc G Maegele, Bertil Bouillon and Edmund A M Neugebauer
    Citation: Trials 2009 10:72
  37. The prevalence of smoking is higher among Pakistani and Bangladeshi males than among the general population. Smokers who receive behavioural support and medication quadruple their chances of stopping smoking, ...

    Authors: Rachna A Begh, Paul Aveyard, Penney Upton, Raj S Bhopal, Martin White, Amanda Amos, Robin J Prescott, Raman Bedi, Pelham Barton, Monica Fletcher, Paramjit Gill, Qaim Zaidi and Aziz Sheikh
    Citation: Trials 2009 10:71
  38. The objective of this research was to evaluate data from a randomized clinical trial that tested injectable diacetylmorphine (DAM) and oral methadone (MMT) for substitution treatment, using a multi-domain dich...

    Authors: Emilio Perea-Milla, Luis Carlos Silva Ayçaguer, Joan Carles March Cerdà, Francisco González Saiz, Francisco Rivas-Ruiz, Alina Danet, Manuel Romero Vallecillo and Eugenia Oviedo-Joekes
    Citation: Trials 2009 10:70
  39. The standard way to stop smoking is to stop abruptly on a quit day with no prior reduction in consumption of cigarettes. Many smokers feel that reduction is natural and if reduction programmes were offered, ma...

    Authors: Nicola Lindson, Paul Aveyard, Jackie T Ingram, Jennie Inglis, Jane Beach, Robert West and Susan Michie
    Citation: Trials 2009 10:69
  40. Chronic (systolic) heart failure (CHF) is a common and disabling condition. Adherence to evidence-based guidelines in primary care has been shown to improve health outcomes. The aim was to explore the impact o...

    Authors: Frank Peters-Klimm, Stephen Campbell, Thomas Müller-Tasch, Dieter Schellberg, Goetz Gelbrich, Wolfgang Herzog and Joachim Szecsenyi
    Citation: Trials 2009 10:68
  41. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of a 10-week exercise therapy regimen on activities of daily living (ADL) and perceived health status in patients with Parkinson disease.

    Authors: Bahram Yousefi, Vahid Tadibi, Ali Fathollahzadeh Khoei and Ali Montazeri
    Citation: Trials 2009 10:67
  42. Endophenotypes are heritable markers, which are more prevalent in patients and their healthy relatives than in the general population. Recent studies point at disturbed regulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary...

    Authors: Ulla Knorr, Maj Vinberg, Marianne Klose, Ulla Feldt-Rasmussen, Linda Hilsted, Anders Gade, Eva Haastrup, Olaf Paulson, Jørn Wetterslev, Christian Gluud, Ulrik Gether and Lars Kessing
    Citation: Trials 2009 10:66
  43. Periodontitis is a common, chronic inflammatory disease caused by gram-negative bacteria leading to destruction of tissues supporting the teeth. Epidemiological studies have consistently shown increased freque...

    Authors: Jean-Noel Vergnes, Elise Arrivé, Pierre Gourdy, Hélène Hanaire, Vincent Rigalleau, Henri Gin, Cyril Sédarat, Georges Dorignac, Christophe Bou, Michel Sixou and Cathy Nabet
    Citation: Trials 2009 10:65
  44. The growing number of people with dementia, and the increasing cost of care, provides a major incentive to develop and test methods of supporting them in the community for longer. Most attention has been given...

    Authors: Robert T Woods, Errollyn Bruce, Rhiannon T Edwards, Barry Hounsome, John Keady, Esme D Moniz-Cook, Martin Orrell and Ian T Russell
    Citation: Trials 2009 10:64
  45. Continuous medical education is traditionally reliant to a large extent on self-directed learning based on individuals' perceived learning priorities. Evidence suggests that this ability to self-assess is limi...

    Authors: Sara Schroter, Dean Jenkins, Rebecca Playle, Kieran Walsh, Courtenay Probert, Thomas Kellner, Gerhard Arnhofer and David Owens
    Citation: Trials 2009 10:63
  46. Several investigations are currently available to establish the diagnosis of coronary heart disease (CHD). Of these, cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) offers the greatest information from a single test, ...

    Authors: John P Greenwood, Neil Maredia, Aleksandra Radjenovic, Julia M Brown, Jane Nixon, Amanda J Farrin, Catherine Dickinson, John F Younger, John P Ridgway, Mark Sculpher, Stephen G Ball and Sven Plein
    Citation: Trials 2009 10:62
  47. Cluster randomized trials are an increasingly important methodological tool in health research. In cluster randomized trials, intact social units or groups of individuals, such as medical practices, schools, o...

    Authors: Monica Taljaard, Charles Weijer, Jeremy M Grimshaw, Judith Belle Brown, Ariella Binik, Robert Boruch, Jamie C Brehaut, Shazia H Chaudhry, Martin P Eccles, Andrew McRae, Raphael Saginur, Merrick Zwarenstein and Allan Donner
    Citation: Trials 2009 10:61

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