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  1. Osteoporosis is a growing worldwide problem, with the greatest burden resulting from fractures. Nevertheless, the majority of fractures in adults occur in those with "osteopenia" (bone mineral density (BMD) on...

    Authors: Feng Yang, De-Zhi Tang, Xue-Jun Cui, Jonathan D Holz, Qin Bian, Qi Shi and Yong-Jun Wang
    Citation: Trials 2011 12:187
  2. Perforated diverticulitis is a condition associated with substantial morbidity. Recently published reports suggest that laparoscopic lavage has fewer complications and shorter hospital stay. So far no randomis...

    Authors: Anders Thornell, Eva Angenete, Elisabeth Gonzales, Jane Heath, Per Jess, Zoltan Läckberg, Henrik Ovesen, Jacob Rosenberg, Stefan Skullman and Eva Haglind
    Citation: Trials 2011 12:186
  3. Despite the diffusion into practice of percutaneous closure of a patent foramen ovale (PFO) in patients with cryptogenic stroke (CS), the benefits have not been demonstrated, and remain unclear. For any indivi...

    Authors: David M Kent and David E Thaler
    Citation: Trials 2011 12:185
  4. Many newly screened people living with HIV (PLHIV) in Sub-Saharan Africa do not understand the importance of regular pre-antiretroviral (ARV) care because most of them have been counseled by staff who lack bas...

    Authors: Lubega Muhamadi, Nazarius M Tumwesigye, Daniel Kadobera, Gaetano Marrone, Fred Wabwire-Mangen, George Pariyo, Stefan Peterson and Anna Mia Ekström
    Citation: Trials 2011 12:184
  5. This article is part of a series of papers examining ethical issues in cluster randomized trials (CRTs) in health research. In the introductory paper in this series, we set out six areas of inquiry that must b...

    Authors: Andrew D McRae, Charles Weijer, Ariella Binik, Angela White, Jeremy M Grimshaw, Robert Boruch, Jamie C Brehaut, Allan Donner, Martin P Eccles, Raphael Saginur, Merrick Zwarenstein and Monica Taljaard
    Citation: Trials 2011 12:183
  6. Around a quarter of the world's neonatal and maternal deaths occur in India. Morbidity and mortality are highest in rural areas and among the poorest wealth quintiles. Few interventions to improve maternal and...

    Authors: Prasanta Tripathy, Nirmala Nair, Rajendra Mahapatra, Shibanand Rath, Raj Kumar Gope, Suchitra Rath, Aparna Bajpai, Vijay Singh, Vikash Nath, Sarfraz Ali, Alok Kumar Kundu, Dibarkar Choudhury, Sanjib Ghosh, Swati Sarbani, Rajesh Sinha, Christina Pagel…
    Citation: Trials 2011 12:182
  7. Low levels of physical activity, high levels of sedentary behaviour and low levels of fruit and vegetable consumption are common in children and are associated with adverse health outcomes. The aim of this pap...

    Authors: Debbie A Lawlor, Russell Jago, Sian M Noble, Catherine R Chittleborough, Rona Campbell, Julie Mytton, Laura D Howe, Tim J Peters and Ruth R Kipping
    Citation: Trials 2011 12:181
  8. Thousands of people whose aggression is thought due to serious mental illness are secluded or restrained every day. Without fair testing these techniques will continue to be used outside of a rigorous evidence...

    Authors: Gisele Huf, Evandro SF Coutinho, Marco AV Ferreira, Silvana Ferreira, Flavia Mello and Clive E Adams
    Citation: Trials 2011 12:180
  9. Endovascular treatment options for the superficial femoral artery are evolving rapidly. For long lesions, the venous femoropopliteal bypass considered to be superior above the prosthetic bypass. An endoluminal...

    Authors: Mare MA Lensvelt, Suzanne Holewijn, Wilbert M Fritschy, Otmar RM Wikkeling, Laurens A van Walraven, Bas M Wallis de Vries, Clark J Zeebregts and Michel MPJ Reijnen
    Citation: Trials 2011 12:178
  10. To describe the rationale and design of a future study comparing results of plate fixation and Elastic Stable Intramedullary Nailing (ESIN) with a Titanium Elastic Nail (TEN) for adults with a dislocated midsh...

    Authors: Frans JG Wijdicks, R Marijn Houwert, Marcel GW Dijkgraaf, Diederik H De Lange, Sven AG Meylaerts, Michiel HJ Verhofstad and Egbert JJM Verleisdonk
    Citation: Trials 2011 12:177
  11. Severe malaria remains a major cause of global morbidity and mortality. Despite the use of potent anti-parasitic agents, the mortality rate in severe malaria remains high. Adjunctive therapies that target the ...

    Authors: Michael Hawkes, Robert O Opoka, Sophie Namasopo, Christopher Miller, Kevin E Thorpe, James V Lavery, Andrea L Conroy, W Conrad Liles, Chandy C John and Kevin C Kain
    Citation: Trials 2011 12:176
  12. Up to 70% of adolescents with moderate to severe unipolar major depression respond to psychological treatment plus Fluoxetine (20-50 mg) with symptom reduction and improved social function reported by 24 weeks...

    Authors: Ian M Goodyer, Sonya Tsancheva, Sarah Byford, Bernadka Dubicka, Jonathan Hill, Raphael Kelvin, Shirley Reynolds, Christopher Roberts, Robert Senior, John Suckling, Paul Wilkinson, Mary Target and Peter Fonagy
    Citation: Trials 2011 12:175
  13. Pulp necrosis is one of the main complications of dental trauma. When it happens on an immature tooth, pulp necrosis implies a lack of root maturation and apical closure. A therapy called apexification is requ...

    Authors: Aurélie Beslot-Neveu, Eric Bonte, Bruno Baune, Raphaël Serreau, Fawzia Aissat, Laurent Quinquis, Sophie Grabar and Jean-Jacques Lasfargues
    Citation: Trials 2011 12:174
  14. Current guidance regarding the role of daily breakfast in human health is largely grounded in cross-sectional observations. However, the causal nature of these relationships has not been fully explored and wha...

    Authors: James A Betts, Dylan Thompson, Judith D Richardson, Enhad A Chowdhury, Matthew Jeans, Geoffrey D Holman and Kostas Tsintzas
    Citation: Trials 2011 12:172
  15. Depressive and anxiety disorders are common in general practice but not always treated adequately. Introducing stepped care might improve this. In this randomized trial we examined the effectiveness of such a ...

    Authors: Wike Seekles, Annemieke van Straten, Aartjan Beekman, Harm van Marwijk and Pim Cuijpers
    Citation: Trials 2011 12:171
  16. Postoperative delirium can result in increased postoperative morbidity and mortality, major demand for postoperative care and higher hospital costs. Hypnotics serve to induce and maintain anaesthesia and to ab...

    Authors: Federico Bilotta, Andrea Doronzio, Elisabetta Stazi, Luca Titi, Ivan Orlando Zeppa, Antonella Cianchi, Giovanni Rosa, Francesca Paola Paoloni, Sergio Bergese, Irene Asouhidou, Polimnia Ioannou, Apolonia Elisabeth Abramowicz, Allison Spinelli, Ellise Delphin, Eugenia Ayrian, Vladimir Zelman…
    Citation: Trials 2011 12:170
  17. Urinary incontinence is an important health problem to the individual sufferer and to health services. Stress and stress predominant mixed urinary incontinence are increasingly managed by surgery due to advanc...

    Authors: Megan Murdoch, Elaine McColl, Denise Howel, Mark Deverill, Brian S Buckley, Malcolm Lucas, Christopher R Chapple, Douglas G Tincello, Natalie Armstrong, Cath Brennand, Jing Shen, Luke Vale and Paul Hilton
    Citation: Trials 2011 12:169
  18. Many interventions delivered within the stroke rehabilitation setting could be considered complex, though some are more complex than others. The degree of complexity might be based on the number of and interac...

    Authors: Marian C Brady, David J Stott, John Norrie, Campbell Chalmers, Bridget St George, Petrina M Sweeney and Peter Langhorne
    Citation: Trials 2011 12:168
  19. The serious mental illness Health Improvement Profile [HIP] is a brief pragmatic tool, which enables mental health nurses to work together with patients to screen physical health and take evidence-based action...

    Authors: Jacquie White, Richard J Gray, Louise Swift, Garry R Barton and Martin Jones
    Citation: Trials 2011 12:167
  20. Treatment options for Visceral Leishmaniasis (VL) in East Africa are far from satisfactory due to cost, toxicity, prolonged treatment duration or emergence of parasite resistance. Hence there is a need to expl...

    Authors: Raymond Omollo, Neal Alexander, Tansy Edwards, Eltahir AG Khalil, Brima M Younis, Abuzaid A Abuzaid, Monique Wasunna, Njenga Njoroge, Dedan Kinoti, George Kirigi, Thomas PC Dorlo, Sally Ellis, Manica Balasegaram and Ahmed M Musa
    Citation: Trials 2011 12:166
  21. In Switzerland, skin cancer is one of the most common neoplasms. Melanoma is the most aggressive one and can be lethal if not detected and removed on time. Nonmelanoma skin cancer is more frequent as melanoma;...

    Authors: Nina Badertscher, Thomas Rosemann, Ryan Tandjung and Ralph P Braun
    Citation: Trials 2011 12:165
  22. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) impairs quality of life and leads to premature mortality. COPD sufferers experience progressive deterioration of lung function and decreased ability to undertake da...

    Authors: Charlie C Xue, Johannah L Shergis, Anthony L Zhang, Christopher Worsnop, Harry Fong, David Story, Cliff Da Costa and Francis CK Thien
    Citation: Trials 2011 12:164
  23. Care management programmes are an effective approach to care for high risk patients with complex care needs resulting from multiple co-occurring medical and non-medical conditions. These patients are likely to...

    Authors: Tobias Freund, Frank Peters-Klimm, Justine Rochon, Cornelia Mahler, Jochen Gensichen, Antje Erler, Martin Beyer, Annika Baldauf, Ferdinand M Gerlach and Joachim Szecsenyi
    Citation: Trials 2011 12:163
  24. The pp-Whipple procedure requires extensive preparation. The conventional preparation technique is done with scissors for dissection and ligatures, and with clips and sutures for hemostasis. This procedure is ...

    Authors: Tobias Gehrig, Phillip Knebel, Verena Scheel, Ulf Hinz, Christoph M Seiler, Beat P Müller-Stich, Markus W Büchler and Carsten N Gutt
    Citation: Trials 2011 12:162
  25. Low back pain (LBP) is a recognized public health problem, impacting up to 80% of US adults at some point in their lives. Patients with LBP are utilizing integrative health care such as spinal manipulation (SM...

    Authors: David G Wilder, Robert D Vining, Katherine A Pohlman, William C Meeker, Ting Xia, James W DeVocht, R Maruti Gudavalli, Cynthia R Long, Edward F Owens and Christine M Goertz
    Citation: Trials 2011 12:161
  26. Knee osteoarthritis (OA) is considered a major public health issue causing chronic disability worldwide with the increasing number of aging people. In China and increasingly worldwide, many sufferers with knee...

    Authors: Cao Yuelong, Zhan Hongsheng, Pang Jian, Li Feiyue, Xu Shaojian, Gao Jinghua, Xu Zhanwang, Li Gang, Liu Ting, Guo Chaoqing and Shi Yinyu
    Citation: Trials 2011 12:160
  27. Suicide is a major public health problem worldwide. In the UK suicide is the second most common cause of death in people aged 15-24 years. Self harm is one of the commonest reasons for medical admission in the...

    Authors: Nusrat Husain, Nasim Chaudhry, Steevart V Durairaj, Imran Chaudhry, Sarah Khan, Meher Husain, Diwaker Nagaraj, Farooq Naeem and Waquas Waheed
    Citation: Trials 2011 12:159
  28. There are a variety of treatment options for Bell's palsy. Evidence from randomized controlled trials indicates corticosteroids can be used as a proven therapy for Bell's palsy. Acupuncture is one of the most ...

    Authors: Feng Xia, Junliang Han, Xuedong Liu, Jingcun Wang, Zhao Jiang, Kangjun Wang, Songdi Wu and Gang Zhao
    Citation: Trials 2011 12:158

    The Erratum to this article has been published in Trials 2014 15:315

  29. There is ample evidence from observational prospective studies that maternal depression or anxiety during pregnancy is a risk factor for adverse psychosocial outcomes in the offspring. However, to date no prev...

    Authors: Judith L Meijer, Claudi LH Bockting, Chantal Beijers, Tjitte Verbeek, A Dennis Stant, Johan Ormel, Ronald P Stolk, Peter de Jonge, Mariëlle G van Pampus and Huibert Burger
    Citation: Trials 2011 12:157
  30. Comprehensive approaches for patients with psychotic symptoms play essential roles in the symptomatic and functional outcomes of patients, especially during disease onset. In Japan, the shortage of mental heal...

    Authors: Shinsuke Koike, Atsushi Nishida, Syudo Yamasaki, Kayo Ichihashi, Sanae Maegawa, Tatsunobu Natsubori, Hirohiko Harima, Kiyoto Kasai, Izumi Fujita, Masanori Harada and Yuji Okazaki
    Citation: Trials 2011 12:156
  31. Falls are common in frail older adults and often result in injuries and hospitalisation. The Nintendo® Wii™ is an easily available exercise modality in the community which has been shown to improve lower limb str...

    Authors: Boon Chong Kwok, Kaysar Mamun, Manju Chandran and Chek Hooi Wong
    Citation: Trials 2011 12:155
  32. Both maternal pre-pregnancy obesity and excessive gestational weight gain are increasing in prevalence and associated with a number of adverse pregnancy outcomes for both mother and child. Observational studie...

    Authors: Trine T Moholdt, Kjell Salvesen, Charlotte B Ingul, Torstein Vik, Emily Oken and Siv Mørkved
    Citation: Trials 2011 12:154
  33. Following the successful introduction of five topic-specific research networks in the UK, the Comprehensive Local Research Network (CLRN) was established in 2008 in order to provide a blanket level of support ...

    Authors: Kim S Thomas, Karin Koller, Katharine Foster, Jo Perdue, Lisa Charlesworth and Joanne R Chalmers
    Citation: Trials 2011 12:153
  34. High blood pressure during acute stroke is associated with poorer stroke outcome. Previous trials have failed to show benefit from lowering blood pressure but treatment may have been commenced too late to be e...

    Authors: Lisa Shaw, Christopher Price, Sally McLure, Denise Howel, Elaine McColl and Gary A Ford
    Citation: Trials 2011 12:152
  35. Public health interventions are increasingly evaluated using cluster-randomised trials in which groups rather than individuals are allocated randomly to treatment and control arms. Outcomes for individuals wit...

    Authors: Christina Pagel, Audrey Prost, Sonia Lewycka, Sushmita Das, Tim Colbourn, Rajendra Mahapatra, Kishwar Azad, Anthony Costello and David Osrin
    Citation: Trials 2011 12:151
  36. Major depression is a common mental disorder that substantially impairs quality of life and has high societal costs. Although psychotherapies have proven to be effective antidepressant treatments, initial resp...

    Authors: Lotte HJM Lemmens, Arnoud Arntz, Frenk PML Peeters, Steven D Hollon, Anne Roefs and Marcus JH Huibers
    Citation: Trials 2011 12:150
  37. We describe the rationale and protocol for a randomized controlled trial (RCT) to assess whether intrauterine contraception placed immediately after a second trimester abortion will result in fewer pregnancies...

    Authors: Wendy V Norman, Janusz Kaczorowski, Judith A Soon, Rollin Brant, Stirling Bryan, Konia J Trouton and Lyda Dicus
    Citation: Trials 2011 12:149
  38. The Italian-American Clinical Trial of Nutritional Supplements and Age-Related Cataract was designed to assess the impact of a multivitamin-mineral supplement on age-related cataract. Trial results showed evid...

    Authors: Sally L Williams, Luigina Ferrigno, Giovanni Maraini, Francesco Rosmini and Robert D Sperduto
    Citation: Trials 2011 12:148
  39. Recently, there has been mounting interest in scaling-up vector control against malaria in Africa. It needs to be determined if indoor residual spraying (IRS with DDT) will provide significant marginal protect...

    Authors: Margaret Pinder, Musa Jawara, Lamin BS Jarju, Ballah Kandeh, David Jeffries, Manuel F Lluberas, Jenny Mueller, David Parker, Kalifa Bojang, David J Conway and Steve W Lindsay
    Citation: Trials 2011 12:147
  40. Persistent non-specific low back pain (PNSLBP) is one of the most frequently experienced types of back pain around the world. Wet-cupping is a common intervention for various pain conditions, especially in Kor...

    Authors: Jong-In Kim, Tae-Hun Kim, Myeong Soo Lee, Jung Won Kang, Kun Hyung Kim, Jun-Yong Choi, Kyung-Won Kang, Ae-Ran Kim, Mi-Suk Shin, So-Young Jung and Sun-mi Choi
    Citation: Trials 2011 12:146
  41. Conducting clinical trials in developing countries often presents significant ethical, organisational, cultural and infrastructural challenges to researchers, pharmaceutical companies, sponsors and regulatory ...

    Authors: Lawrence Mbuagbaw, Lehana Thabane, Pierre Ongolo-Zogo and Trudie Lang
    Citation: Trials 2011 12:145
  42. Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) are the gold standard of evidence-based practice in medicine but they have had limited influence in the field of intellectual disabilities. Previous literature suggests that...

    Authors: Dan Robotham, Michael King, Anton Canagasabey, Sophie Inchley-Mort and Angela Hassiotis
    Citation: Trials 2011 12:144
  43. Frailty is common in older age, and is associated with important adverse health outcomes including increased risk of disability and admission to hospital or long-term care. Exercise interventions for frail old...

    Authors: Andrew Clegg, Sally Barber, John Young, Anne Forster and Steve Iliffe
    Citation: Trials 2011 12:143
  44. Psychodynamic psychotherapy is frequently applied in the treatment of social phobia. Nevertheless, there has been a lack of studies on the transfer of manualized treatments to routine psychodynamic practice. O...

    Authors: Jörg Wiltink, Christian Ruckes, Antje Haselbacher, Marco Canterino, Falk Leichsenring, Peter Joraschky, Frank Leweke, Karin Pöhlmann and Manfred E Beutel
    Citation: Trials 2011 12:142
  45. To assess bias and generalizability of results in randomized controlled trials (RCT), investigators compare participants to non-participants or early- to late-participants. Comparisons can also inform the recr...

    Authors: Christine LM Joseph, Jacquelyn Saltzgaber, Suzanne L Havstad, Christine C Johnson, Dayna Johnson, Edward L Peterson, Gwen Alexander, Mick P Couper and Dennis R Ownby
    Citation: Trials 2011 12:141
  46. Heart failure is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in society. Current medical therapy centres on neurohormonal modulation with angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors and β-blockers. There is growing ...

    Authors: Roger M Beadle, Lynne K Williams, Khaild Abozguia, Kiran Patel, Francisco Leyva Leon, Zaheer Yousef, Anton Wagenmakers and Michael P Frenneaux
    Citation: Trials 2011 12:140
  47. Delirium prevalence in the intensive care unit (ICU) is high. Numerous psychotropic agents are used to manage delirium in the ICU with limited data regarding their efficacy or harms.

    Authors: Noll L Campbell, Babar A Khan, Mark Farber, Tiffany Campbell, Anthony J Perkins, Siu L Hui, Greg Abernathy, John Buckley, Regg Sing, Jason Tricker, Mohammad Zawahiri and Malaz A Boustani
    Citation: Trials 2011 12:139

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