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Table 3 The estimated cost of high, uncertain and low risk of bias trials

From: Tolerating bad health research: the continuing scandal

Risk of bias Number of trials Participants E1 costs
(£)
E2 costs
(£)
E3 costs
(£)
High 1013 222,850 725,599,600 8,004,326,300 2,090,778,700
Uncertain 494 127,290 414,456,240 4,572,002,220 1,194,234,780
Low 133 47,138 153,481,328 1,693,102,684 442,248,716