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Table 5 Influencing factors and motivators to research participation and barriers to retention: drug of choice differences, heroin vs. methamphetamine

From: A cross-sectional survey of potential factors, motivations, and barriers influencing research participation and retention among people who use drugs in the rural USA

Survey item Heroin (n = 90) Methamphetamine (n = 91) Prevalence ratioa,b 95% CI
Selected not selected selected not selected
Influencing factors
 What the research study involves (e.g., survey, drug testing for research) 69 21 68 23 0.96 (0.86, 1.06)
 How much time is required 67 23 58 33 0.91 (0.79, 1.03)
 How often they have to come in for visits 57 33 56 35 0.90 (0.78, 1.05)
 How far they have to travel to participate (i.e., nearby vs. out of town) 58 32 67 24 1.01 (0.90, 1.13)
 Privacy of the research office 58 32 73 18 1.10 (0.99, 1.20)
 Why their information is being collected and what it will be used for 53 37 67 24 1.12* (1.00, 1.26)
 Whether their information will be kept confidential 63 27 80 11 1.07 (0.99, 1.16)
 Whether the staff doing the research is friendly and trustworthyc 62 28 82 9
 Whether the research institution or university is respected 39 51 51 40 1.25* (1.08, 1.43)
 Whether they can skip questions of parts of the study that make them uncomfortable 51 39 61 30 1.04 (0.91, 1.19)
 How much money they will receive 64 26 75 16 1.01 (0.92, 1.11)
 How much the project will benefit them overall 58 32 68 23 0.93 (0.82, 1.05)
 Whether their appointment times will interfere with their work schedule 37 53 42 49 1.07 (0.88, 1.30)
 Whether they have childcare so that they can attend their appointments 41 49 51 40 1.08 (0.91, 1.28)
 How their friends, family, or partner feels about them participating 38 52 46 45 1.09 (0.90, 1.31)
Motivations
 Financial incentive (i.e., money or gift card given for participation 79 11 81 10 0.97 (0.91, 1.04)
 They believe in the mission of the research and want to contribute 61 29 64 27 0.93 (0.82, 1.06)
 Their friends, family, or partner participates 63 27 67 24 0.93 (0.82, 1.04)
 They want to tell their story 49 41 54 37 1.03 (0.88, 1.20)
 They know someone on the research team and want to help them out 27 63 37 54 1.00 (0.79, 1.28)
 They want to learn about the topic 43 47 57 34 1.05 (0.90, 1.23)
 They would want to get free testing (for example, rapid tests for HIV & Hepatitis C) if it was offered as part of the study 55 35 78 13 1.08 (0.99, 1.18)
 They would want to be linked with resources and/or follow-up testing if it was offered as part of the study 55 35 73 18 1.09 (0.99, 1.21)
 They would want to try a new treatment if it was offered as part of the study 59 31 76 15 1.03 (0.93, 1.13)
 Their friends, family, or partner pressures them to participate so that they can share the financial incentive 34 56 32 59 0.88 (0.69, 1.13)
Barriers
 Not being able to get in touch with participants because their contact information changed 72 18 80 11 1.00 (0.93, 1.08)
 Not being able to get in touch with participants because they gave false contact information when they started the study 51 39 61 30 0.99 (0.87, 1.14)
 They may have trouble getting transportation for their appointments 68 22 71 20 0.99 (0.89, 1.09)
 They may have trouble being able to show up at a specific appointment time 62 28 72 19 1.05 (0.95, 1.16)
 They may have trouble getting to their appointment because of their work schedule 44 46 46 45 1.04 (0.89, 1.21)
 They may have trouble finding childcare so that they can go to their appointment 47 43 49 42 0.94 (0.79, 1.12)
 They may have concerns about confidentiality and privacy 43 47 60 31 1.09 (0.95, 1.26)
 They may be afraid that the staff would judge them if they are still using drugs 38 52 48 43 1.09 (0.91, 1.31)
 They may have stopped using drugs and no longer think the study is relevant to them 40 50 56 35 1.01 (0.86, 1.19)
 They are in a drug treatment or recovery facility and are unable to be contacted by research staff 49 41 60 31 1.09 (0.96, 1.25)
 Their friends, family, or partner may want them to stop participating 29 61 28 63 0.94 (0.71, 1.24)
  1. aHeroin as the preferred drug of choice is the referent group
  2. bThe level of response for each survey item was dichotomized into “selected” or “not selected” to generate prevalence ratios
  3. cCell sizes for “not selected” were < 10; analysis not performed
  4. * Significant at α = 0.05 level