Skip to main content

Table 3 Influencing factors and motivators to research participation and barriers to retention: Oregon versus Appalachia PWUD

From: A cross-sectional survey of potential factors, motivations, and barriers influencing research participation and retention among people who use drugs in the rural USA

Survey item Oregon (n = 79) Appalachia (n = 176) Prevalence ratioa,b 95% CI
Selected Not selected Selected Not selected
Influencing factors
 What the research study involves (e.g., survey, drug testing for research)c 71 8 111 65
 How much time is required 65 14 102 74 1.42* (1.21, 1.67)
 How often they have to come in for visits 69 10 72 104 2.14* (1.75, 2.60)
 How far they have to travel to participate (i.e., nearby vs. out of town)c 70 9 92 84
 Privacy of the research office 65 14 110 66 1.32* (1.13, 1.53)
 Why their information is being collected and what it will be used for 65 14 99 77 1.46* (1.24, 1.73)
 Whether their information will be kept confidentialc 72 7 118 58
 Whether the staff doing the research is friendly and trustworthyc 76 3 114 62
 Whether the research institution or university is respected 44 35 78 98 1.26 (0.97, 1.63)
 Whether they can skip questions of parts of the study that make them uncomfortable 60 19 88 88 1.52* (1.25, 1.84)
 How much money they will receivec 70 9 113 63
 How much the project will benefit them overallc 70 9 88 88
 Whether their appointment times will interfere with their work schedule 46 33 63 113 1.63* (1.24, 2.14)
 Whether they have childcare so that they can attend their appointments 51 28 74 102 1.54* (1.21, 1.95)
 How their friends, family, or partner feels about them participating 49 30 64 112 1.71* (1.31, 2.21)
Motivations
 Financial incentive (i.e., money or gift card given for participationc 79 0 134 42
 They believe in the mission of the research and want to contribute 61 18 96 80 1.42* (1.18, 1.70)
 Their friends, family, or partner participates 65 14 97 79 1.49* (1.26, 1.77)
 They want to tell their story 53 26 86 90 1.37* (1.11, 1.70)
 They know someone on the research team and want to help them out 40 39 42 134 2.12* (1.51, 2.99)
 They want to learn about the topic 51 28 79 97 1.44* (1.14, 1.81)
 They would want to get free testing (for example, rapid tests for HIV & Hepatitis C) if it was offered as part of the studyc 71 8 102 74
 They would want to be linked with resources and/or follow-up testing if it was offered as part of the study 69 10 103 73 1.49* (1.28, 1.73)
 They would want to try a new treatment if it was offered as part of the study 68 11 105 71 1.44* (1.24, 1.68)
 Their friends, family, or partner pressures them to participate so that they can share the financial incentive 42 37 43 133 2.18* (1.56, 3.03)
Barriers
 Not being able to get in touch with participants because their contact information changedc 74 5 133 43
 Not being able to get in touch with participants because they gave false contact information when they started the study 46 33 100 76 1.02 (0.82, 1.29)
 They may have trouble getting transportation for their appointments 64 15 124 52 1.15 (0.99, 1.33)
 They may have trouble being able to show up at a specific appointment timec 72 7 108 68
 They may have trouble getting to their appointment because of their work schedule 51 28 71 105 1.60* (1.26, 2.04)
 They may have trouble finding childcare so that they can go to their appointment 53 26 74 102 1.60* (1.26, 2.01)
 They may have concerns about confidentiality and privacy 54 25 79 97 1.52* (1.22, 1.90)
 They may be afraid that the staff would judge them if they are still using drugs 41 38 76 100 1.20 (0.92, 1.58)
 They may have stopped using drugs and no longer think the study is relevant to them 47 32 74 102 1.42* (1.10, 1.82)
 They are in a drug treatment or recovery facility and are unable to be contacted by research staff 55 24 92 84 1.33* (1.09, 1.63)
 Their friends, family, or partner may want them to stop participating 28 51 49 127 1.27 (0.87, 1.86)
  1. aKentucky and Ohio sites were combined to represent the referent group of “Appalachia”
  2. bThe level of response for each survey item was dichotomized into “selected” or “not selected” to generate prevalence ratios
  3. cOregon cell sizes for “not selected” were < 10; analysis not performed
  4. * Significant at α =0.05 level