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Table 8 Change-over-time results (cognitive dual-task performance and cognitive-motor interference)

From: Walking-adaptability therapy after stroke: results of a randomized controlled trial

Outcome (n: CT, FP) CT and FP Change over time, both groups (mean difference, p value, effect size)
10MWT cognitive (sub/s) T0 (14,16) 0.47 ± 0.24
T1 (14,16) 0.52 ± 0.24 0.05, 0.01, 0.49
T2 (12,16)* 0.54 ± 0.24 0.07, 0.00, 0.52
T3 (8,14)* 0.61 ± 0.33 0.14, 0.10, 0.12
10MWT context and cognitive (sub/s) T0 (14,16) 0.34 ± 0.21
T1 (14,16) 0.42 ± 0.23 0.08, 0.00, 0.56
T2 (12,16)* 0.41 ± 0.18 0.07, 0.00, 0.61
T3 (8,15)* 0.39 ± 0.16 0.05, 0.21, 0.07
IWW obstacles and cognitive (sub/s) T0 (14,14)* 0.42 ± 0.25
T1 (11,14)* 0.56 ± 0.31 0.14, 0.00, 0.69
T2 (8,13)* 0.42 ± 0.19 0.00, 0.47, 0.16
T3 (5,11)* 0.35 ± 0.14 − 0.7, 0.09, 0.18
Cognitive-motor interference 10MWT (%) T0 (14,16) − 4 (− 40–52)
T1 (14,16) − 6 ± 18 − 2, 0.72, 0.07
T2 (12,16)* − 2 ± 18 2, 0.55, 0.12
T3 (8,14)* 16 ± 53 20, 0.08, 0.14
Cognitive-motor interference
10MWT context (%)
T0 (14,16) − 13 (− 45–23)
T1 (12,16)* − 12 ± 14 1, 0.81, 0.05
T2 (10,16)* − 7 ± 19 6, 0.25, 0.23
T3 (7,15)* −8 ± 13 5, 0.51, 0.02
Cognitive-motor interference
IWW obstacles (%)
T0 (14,14)* − 4 (− 39–223)
T1 (11,14)* − 14 ± 15 − 10, 0.26, 0.23
T2 (8,13)* − 10 ± 19 − 6, 0.44, 0.17
T3 (5,10)* − 21 ± 16 − 17, 0.13, 0.15
  1. Mean difference represents the difference over time at T1, T2, and T3 compared to baseline (T0). p values were obtained using Paired samples t-test. Significant differences are presented in bold (p < 0.05) and tendencies are presented in italic (0.05 < p < 0.075). *Some participants were excluded (see degrees of freedom) due to technical problems with the IWW and/or video footage