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Table 5 Between-group results (cognitive dual-task performance and cognitive-motor interference)

From: Walking-adaptability therapy after stroke: results of a randomized controlled trial

Outcome (n: CT, FP) CT FP Difference between groups
(mean difference, p value, effect size)
10MWT cognitive (sub/s) T0 (14,16) 0.43 ± 0.12 0.51 ± 0.31 − 0.08, 0.36, 0.21a
T1–T0 (14,16) 0.09 ± 0.10 0.02 ± 0.09 0.07, 0.06, 0.13b
T2–T0 (12,16)* 0.09 ± 0.07 0.05 ± 0.14 0.04, 0.59, 0.01b
T3–T0 (8,14)* 0.10 ± 0.08 0.04 ± 0.19 0.06, 0.88, 0.00b
10MWT context and cognitive (sub/s) T0 (14,16) 0.31 ± 0.15 0.37 ± 0.25 − 0.07, 0.36, 0.18a
T1–T0 (14,16) 0.11 ± 0.11 0.06 ± 0.12 0.05, 0.28, 0.04b
T2–T0 (12,16)* 0.08 ± 0.08 0.05 ± 0.08 0.03, 0.33, 0.04b
T3–T0 (8,15)* 0.06 ± 0.07 0.03 ± 0.18 0.03, 0.59, 0.01b
IWW obstacles and cognitive (sub/s) T0 (14,14)* 0.33 ± 0.12 0.51 ± 0.31 0.19, 0.05, 0.46a
T1–T0 (11,14)* 0.15 ± 0.14 0.12 ± 0.15 0.03, 0.40, 0.03 b
T2–T0 (8,13)* 0.02 ± 0.08 0.04 ± 0.14 − 0.02, 0.58, 0.02b
T3–T0 (5,11)* 0.05 ± 0.14 − 0.22 ± 0.30 0.27, 0.16, 0.13b
Cognitive-motor interference 10MWT (%) T0 (14,16) − 6 (− 28 to − 1) − 1(− 40–52) 9, 0.03, 0.39c
T1–T0 (14,16) 3 ± 22 − 5 ± 20 8, 0.83, 0.00b
T2–T0 (12,16)* 3 ± 14 2 ± 22 1, 0.58, 0.01b
T3–T0 (8,14)* 34 ± 84 13 ± 26 21, 0.55, 0.02b
Cognitive-motor interference
10MWT context (%)
T0 (14,16) − 15 (− 45–23) − 9 (− 36–5) − 2, 0.48, 0.13c
T1–T0 (12,16)* − 1 ± 15 2 ± 18 − 3, 0.46, 0.02b
T2–T0 (10,16)* 2 ± 24 7 ± 21 − 5, 0.50, 0.02b
T3–T0 (7,15)* − 9 ± 17 8 ± 19 − 17, 0.11, 0.13b
Cognitive-motor interference
IWW obstacles (%)
T0 (14,14)* − 17 (− 39–20) 8 (− 32–223) 25, 0.04, 0.38c
T1–T0 (11,14)* 0 ± 21 − 22 ± 69 22, 0.76, 0.00 b
T2–T0 (8,13)* 6 ± 27 − 20 ± 68 26, 0.62, 0.01b
T3–T0 (5,10)* − 14 ± 22 − 33 ± 78 19, 0.98, 0.00b
  1. Mean difference represents the difference between groups (CT-FP) at T0 and mean differences in change values at T1, T2, and T3. p values were obtained using aIndependent t-test, bANCOVA with baseline performance as covariate, or cMann-Whitney U test. Significant differences are presented in bold (p < 0.05) and tendencies are presented in italic (0.05 < p < 0.075). *Some participants were excluded (see degrees of freedom) due to technical problems with the IWW and/or video footage