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Table 2 Clavien-Dindo classification

From: Electroacupuncture for postoperative ileus after laparoscopic surgery on colorectal cancer: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

Grade 1 Any deviation from the normal postoperative course without the need for pharmacologic treatment or surgical, endoscopic, and radiologic interventions. Allowed therapeutic regimens are drugs as antiemetics, antipyretics, analgetics, and diuretics, and electrolytes and physiotherapy. This grade also includes wound infections opened at the bedside
Grade 2 Requiring pharmacologic treatment with drugs other than such allowed for grade I complications. Blood transfusions and total parenteral nutrition are also included
Grade 3 Requiring surgical, endoscopic, or radiologic intervention
3a Intervention not under general anesthesia
3b Intervention under general anesthesia
Grade 4 Life-threatening complication (including CNS complications) requiring IC/ICU managementa
4a Single organ dysfunction (including dialysis)
4b Multiple organ dysfunction
Grade 5 Death as a result of complications
  1. Abbreviations: CNS central nervous system, IC intermediate care, ICU intensive care unit
  2. aBrain hemorrhage, ischemic stroke, or subarachnoidal bleeding but excluding transient ischemic attacks