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Table 1 Efficacy and safety of PERIOdontal treatment versus usual care for Nonalcoholic liver disease (PERION) inclusion criteria

From: Efficacy and safety of PERIOdontal treatment versus usual care for Nonalcoholic liver disease: protocol of the PERION multicenter, two-arm, open-label, randomized trial

Criteria type

Description of inclusion criteria

Sex and age

Men and women: 20–85 years of age

Diet and exercise therapy

Patients with NAFLD who did not respond to 3-month diet and exercise therapy

ALT levels

Patients with an ALT level of > 40 IU/L at the start of this study

Fatty liver

Patients with a diagnosis of fatty liver based on abdominal ultrasonographya

Steatosis grade

Patients with the equivalent of steatosis grade  ≥ 1 on CAP (using FibroScan) and/or PDFF (using MRI)b

Fibrosis stage

Patients with the equivalent of fibrosis stage < 4 on TE (FibroScan) and/or MREc

Alcohol consumption

Patients with no habitual alcohol consumption (i.e., consumption of ethanol > 30 g/day in men and > 20 g/day in women)


Patients with chronic moderate periodontitis (holding rate of periodontal pocket depth of > 4 mm is > 10 sites)


Patients who can provide written consent to participate in this research in person, follow instructions during participation in this research, undergo protocol-specified physical examination and other examinations, and report symptoms or events

  1. ALT alanine aminotransferase, CAP controlled attenuation parameter, MRE magnetic resonance elastography, MRI magnetic resonance imaging, NAFLD nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, PERION PERIOdontal treatment for NAFLD, PDFF proton density fat fraction, VCTE vibration-controlled transient elastography. aCriteria of fatty liver, as defined by the existence of hepatorenal echo contrast. bDefined by CAP ≥ 236 dB/m and/or PDFF ≥ 5.2%. cDefined by VCTE < 14 kPa and/or MRE < 6.7 kPa