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Table 2 Study design

From: Study protocol for a randomized controlled trial: prophylactic swallowing exercises in head-and-neck cancer patients treated with (chemo)radiotherapy (PRESTO trial)

Inclusionn = 150
Stratified randomizationn = 50
Control group
n = 50
App group
n = 50
Therapist group
Therapy schedule• 5x/week (30–40 min)• 5x/week (30–40 min)• 5x/week (30–40 min)
• 4 weeks• 4 weeks• 4 weeks
• Home practice• Home practice but app-supported• Therapist supervised
Exercises• TSE• TSE• TSE
• CTAR• CTAR• CTAR
• Effortful swallow• Effortful swallow• Effortful swallow
Adherence measurements
• SupervisionNo (home practice)No (home practice – app)Yes (face-to-face therapy)
• CounselingCounseling 1x/week by SLP (10′)Counseling 1x/week by SLP (10′) & continuous counseling via appCounseling by SLP 5x/week
• Feedback on performanceYes – instrumentalYes – instrumentalYes – instrumental & by SLP
• Clear and repeated instructions• Introduction session
• Written instructions
• Introduction session
• Instructions via app: animation videos
• Each session by the SLP
• Target settingYesYesYes
• Limited durationYes – first 4 weeks of CRTYes – first 4 weeks of CRTYes – first 4 weeks of CRT
  1. TSE tongue-strengthening exercises, CTAR chin-tuck against resistance, SLP speech and language pathologist, CRT (chemo)radiotherapy