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Table 3 Consistency of findings when the same trial is examined in more than one clinical population

From: Exclusion rates in randomized controlled trials of treatments for physical conditions: a systematic review

Condition and trialClinical populationOverall risk of biasPercentage excluded
Median percentage (range for Aaltonen and Vashisht)
Atrial fibrillation
ARISTOTLE (2011)
Yoon (record review for consenting patients in a single hospital)aHigh32.3
Lee (primary care electronic medical record population data)Low38.7
Fanning (record review within multiple hospitals)High39.5
Desmaele (clinical registry in a single hospital)High54.5
Hagg (primary care electronic medical record population data)Low71.1
Atrial fibrillation
ROCKET-AF (2011)
Yoon (record review for consenting patients in a single hospital)aHigh34.5
Lee (primary care electronic medical record population data)Low52.5
Desmaele (clinical registry in a single hospital)High60.7
Fanning (record review within multiple hospitals)High64.2
Atrial fibrillation
RE-LY (2009)
Yoon (record review for consenting patients in a single hospital)aHigh35.2
Lee (primary care electronic medical record population data)Low36.2
Fanning (record review within multiple hospitals)High47.4
Desmaele (clinical registry in a single hospital)High52.4
Heart failure
MERIT-HF (2000)
Constantino (record review in a single hospital)aUnclear48.0
Jost (clinical registry in a single hospital)Low58.8
Masoudi (National Heart Failure Project registry)High82.6
Heart failure
RALES (1999)
Masoudi (National Heart Failure Project registry)aHigh74.7
Costantino (record review in a single hospital)Unclear76.0
Acute myocardial infarction
GUSTO (1993)
Krumholz (National Research Registry of Myocardial Infarction)aHigh84.5
Krumholz (Cooperative Cardiovascular Project registry)High90.6
COPD
POET-COPD (2011)
Kruis (seven primary care databases)aHigh77.0
Halpin (primary care research database)Low88.2
COPD
UPLIFT (2009)
Kruis (seven primary care databases)aHigh58.0
Halpin (primary care research database)Low77.5
Rheumatoid Arthritis
9 trialsb
Aaltonen (National Register for Biologic Treatment)aHigh80.0 (56.0 to 92.4)
Vashisht (RA Investigators’ Network database research registry)High89.6 (74.7 to 91.6)
Vashisht (Veterans’ Affairs Rheumatoid Arthritis research registry)Unclear97.4 (75.6 to 98.4)
Rheumatoid Arthritis
21 trialsb
Vashisht (RA Investigators’ Network database research registry)aUnclear89.0 (64.9 to 93.5)
Vashisht (Veterans’ Affairs Rheumatoid Arthritis research registry)High97.4 (72.7 to 99.1)
  1. a Marked trials with most conservative estimate of percentage of patients excluded were analysed
  2. b See supplementary table S14 for individual trial comparisons