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Table 1 Theoretical basis and logic model for how the sensory intervention may impact the person with dementia

From: A randomised controlled trial of hearing and vision support in dementia: Protocol for a process evaluation in the SENSE-Cog trial

Theoretical COM-B domainComponent of the sensory interventionBehaviour change (B) due to the interventionImmediate impact of the behaviour change (secondary outcomes of interest)Intermediate impact of the behaviour change (secondary outcomes of interest)Primary outcome of interest
Capability (C)
(the individual’s psychological and physical capacity to engage in the activity concerned)
Correct visual / auditory impairment• Hear and see better (HHIE-25;VA-LVVFQ-20)
• Uptake and adherence improves
(HASK)
• Greater understanding /insight of impairments
• Dyadic interaction improves (RSS)
• Enhanced cognitive stimulation
• Enhanced cognitive functioning (MoCA)
• Reduced neuropsychiatric symptoms (NPI-12)
• Less loneliness in dyad
• Enhanced social interactions
• Greater independence for person with dementia
• Greater companion respite
• Enhanced self-efficacy
• Improved communication
• Greater functional ability (BADLS)
• Reduced apathy (NPI-12)
• Relationship satisfaction is higher (RSS) in both person with dementia and companion
• Companions health and well-being (SF-12; GHQ-12; FCS; HADS)
• Quality of life in PwD
(DEMQoL)
Training in correct use of hearing aid /glasses with dyad
Communication Training with dyad
Home-based functional assessment and tailored interventions to address support care needs enabled
Opportunity (O)
(external factors which impact on the individual’s ability to ‘live well’ with dementia)
Provision of supplementary sensory devices• Hear and see better (HHIE-25;VA-LVVFQ-20)
• Appropriate levels of support from companion
Referral to health and social care services• Uptake of health and social care services
• Uptake of social/hobby/ interest opportunities
• Enhanced cognitive stimulation
• Achievement of set goals
Referral to social/hobby/interest activities
Motivation (M)
(in dementia, apathy and loss of motivation is prevalent and may make behavioural change difficult)
Individualised goal setting
Referral to social/hobby/ interest activities• Enhanced uptake and adherence of sensory aids and suggested social opportunities
• Uptake of meaningful and enjoyable social/hobby/interest activities
  1. BADLs Bristol Activities of Daily Living Scale [22], DEMQoL Dementia Quality of Life [24], FCS Family Caregiving Role Scale [25], HADS Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale [26], HASK Hearing Aid Skills and Knowledge Test [27], HHIE-25 Hearing Handicap Inventory for the Elderly [28], GHQ-12 General Health Questionnaire [29], MoCA Montreal Cognitive Assessment [30], NPI-12 Neuropsychiatric Inventory [31], RSS Relationship Satisfaction Scale [32], SF-12 Short Form Health Survey [33], VA LV-VFQ-20 Veterans Affairs Low vision Visual Functioning Questionnaire [34]