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Table 4 The effects of dill supplementation on serum levels of antioxidant and inflammatory markers at baseline and postintervention

From: The effects of Anethum graveolens (dill) powder supplementation on clinical and metabolic status in patients with type 2 diabetes

Variables Dill powder (n = 21) Placebo (n = 21) P valuea P valueb P valuec P valued
MDA (μM)
 Baseline 3.34 ± 2.05 3.72 ± 2.09 0.554 0.886   
 End 2.22 ± 1.57 4.06 ± 2.32 0.005* 0.000*   
P valuee 0.034* 0.354     
 Difference −1.11 ± 2.24 0.33 ± 1.62    0.021* 0.013*
TAC (mM)
 Baseline 0.19 ± 0.05 0.17 ± 0.03 0.103 0.137   
 End 0.25 ± 0.09 0.16 ± 0.06 0.001* 0.004*   
P valuee 0.025* 0.793     
 Difference 0.058 ± 0.11 −0.004 ± 0.7    0.339 0.145
hs-CRP (mg/l)
 Baseline 4.13 ± 0.84 4.29 ± 0.70 0.506 0.388   
 End 3.87 ± 0.89 4.32 ± 0.93 0.122 0.143   
P valuee 0.283 0.872     
 Difference −0.25 ± 1.06 0.2 ± 0.8    0.332 0.649
  1. Values are expressed as means ± standard deviation
  2. hs-CRP high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, MDA malondialdehyde
  3. *P < 0.05 considered as significant, and significant values are shown in bold type
  4. aBetween-group comparison of variables at baseline and after intervention from independent sample t test (for all variables)
  5. bBetween-group comparison of variables at baseline and after intervention from analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) in the adjusted models (adjusted for age, duration of disease, dietary intake of energy, macronutrients, antioxidant, vitamins such as vitamins A, C and E, physical activity and body mass index)
  6. cBetween-group comparisons mean changes of variables from Mann–Whitney U test (for total antioxidant capacity (TAC)) and independent t test (for other variables)
  7. dBetween-group comparisons mean changes of variables from ANCOVA (adjusted for age, duration of disease, changes of body mass index, dietary intake of energy, macronutrients, vitamin A, C and E and physical activity)
  8. eWithin-group comparison of variables from paired t test (for all variables)