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Table 3 Serum levels of glycemic parameters and lipid profile at baseline and postintervention

From: The effects of Anethum graveolens (dill) powder supplementation on clinical and metabolic status in patients with type 2 diabetes

VariablesDill powder (n = 21)Placebo (n = 21)P valueaP valuebP valuecP valued
FBS (mg/dl)
 Baseline145.76 ± 50.81148.61 ± 56.560.8640.883  
 End141.14 ± 40.37154.23 ± 36.720.2780.623  
P valuee0.6680.671    
 Difference−4.61 ± 48.565.61 ± 59.76  0.170.752
Insulin (μU/ml)
 Baseline13.27 ± 3.811.61 ± 4.910.2300.474  
 End10.54 ± 4.5112.12 ± 4.230.2500.796  
P valuee0.004*0.604    
 Difference−2.7 ± 3.830.50 ± 4.36  0.015*0.05
HOMA-IR
 Baseline4.88 ± 2.374.37 ± 3.010.5440.762  
 End3.86 ± 2.324.60 ± 2.020.2760.848  
P valuee0.039*0.698    
 Difference−1.02 ± 2.120.23 ± 2.68  0.1010.447
TG (mg/dl)
 Baseline196.52 ± 60.16194.66 ± 75.580.9300.626  
 End172.38 ± 69.86190.19 ± 79.930.4470.664  
P valuee0.0550.811    
 Difference−24.14 ± 54.29−4.47 ± 84.69  0.3760.343
TC (mg/dl)
 Baseline160.28 ± 38.26154.42 ± 32.420.5960.492  
 End149.23 ± 26.7156.8 ± 32.250.4120.881  
P valuee0.03*0.654    
 Difference−11.04 ± 21.72.38 ± 23.95  0.0640.033*
LDL-C (mg/dl)
 Baseline81.00 ± 34.7971.71 ± 23.550.3180.516  
 End71.23 ± 26.6374.80 ± 22.800.6430.357  
P valuee0.029*0.325    
 Difference−9.76 ± 19.083.09 ± 14.07  0.017*0.04*
HDL-C (mg/dl)
 Baseline41.85 ± 11.6843.14 ± 8.050.6800.939  
 End44.80 ± 9.8941.76 ± 6.330.2430.343  
P valuee0.007*0.185    
 Difference2.59 ± 4.51−1.38 ± 4.60  0.004*0.04*
  1. Values are expressed as means ± standard deviation
  2. HDL-C high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, HOMA-IR homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance, LDL-C low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, TC total cholesterol, TG triglyceride
  3. *P < 0.05 considered as significant, and significant values are shown in bold type
  4. aBetween-group comparison of variables at baseline and after intervention from independent t test (for all variables)
  5. bBetween-group comparison of variables at baseline and after intervention from analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) in the adjusted models (adjusted for age, duration of disease, dietary intake of energy, macronutrients, antioxidant vitamins such as vitamins A, C, and E, physical activity and body mass index)
  6. cBetween-group comparisons mean changes of variables from Mann–Whitney U test (for fasting blood sugar (FBS)) and independent t test (for other variables)
  7. dBetween group comparisons mean changes of variables from ANCOVA (adjusted for age, duration of disease, changes of body mass index, dietary intake of energy, macronutrients, vitamins A, C, and E and physical activity)
  8. eWithin-group comparison of variables, resulted from paired t test (for all variables)