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Table 3 Serum levels of glycemic parameters and lipid profile at baseline and postintervention

From: The effects of Anethum graveolens (dill) powder supplementation on clinical and metabolic status in patients with type 2 diabetes

Variables Dill powder (n = 21) Placebo (n = 21) P valuea P valueb P valuec P valued
FBS (mg/dl)
 Baseline 145.76 ± 50.81 148.61 ± 56.56 0.864 0.883   
 End 141.14 ± 40.37 154.23 ± 36.72 0.278 0.623   
P valuee 0.668 0.671     
 Difference −4.61 ± 48.56 5.61 ± 59.76    0.17 0.752
Insulin (μU/ml)
 Baseline 13.27 ± 3.8 11.61 ± 4.91 0.230 0.474   
 End 10.54 ± 4.51 12.12 ± 4.23 0.250 0.796   
P valuee 0.004* 0.604     
 Difference −2.7 ± 3.83 0.50 ± 4.36    0.015* 0.05
HOMA-IR
 Baseline 4.88 ± 2.37 4.37 ± 3.01 0.544 0.762   
 End 3.86 ± 2.32 4.60 ± 2.02 0.276 0.848   
P valuee 0.039* 0.698     
 Difference −1.02 ± 2.12 0.23 ± 2.68    0.101 0.447
TG (mg/dl)
 Baseline 196.52 ± 60.16 194.66 ± 75.58 0.930 0.626   
 End 172.38 ± 69.86 190.19 ± 79.93 0.447 0.664   
P valuee 0.055 0.811     
 Difference −24.14 ± 54.29 −4.47 ± 84.69    0.376 0.343
TC (mg/dl)
 Baseline 160.28 ± 38.26 154.42 ± 32.42 0.596 0.492   
 End 149.23 ± 26.7 156.8 ± 32.25 0.412 0.881   
P valuee 0.03* 0.654     
 Difference −11.04 ± 21.7 2.38 ± 23.95    0.064 0.033*
LDL-C (mg/dl)
 Baseline 81.00 ± 34.79 71.71 ± 23.55 0.318 0.516   
 End 71.23 ± 26.63 74.80 ± 22.80 0.643 0.357   
P valuee 0.029* 0.325     
 Difference −9.76 ± 19.08 3.09 ± 14.07    0.017* 0.04*
HDL-C (mg/dl)
 Baseline 41.85 ± 11.68 43.14 ± 8.05 0.680 0.939   
 End 44.80 ± 9.89 41.76 ± 6.33 0.243 0.343   
P valuee 0.007* 0.185     
 Difference 2.59 ± 4.51 −1.38 ± 4.60    0.004* 0.04*
  1. Values are expressed as means ± standard deviation
  2. HDL-C high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, HOMA-IR homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance, LDL-C low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, TC total cholesterol, TG triglyceride
  3. *P < 0.05 considered as significant, and significant values are shown in bold type
  4. aBetween-group comparison of variables at baseline and after intervention from independent t test (for all variables)
  5. bBetween-group comparison of variables at baseline and after intervention from analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) in the adjusted models (adjusted for age, duration of disease, dietary intake of energy, macronutrients, antioxidant vitamins such as vitamins A, C, and E, physical activity and body mass index)
  6. cBetween-group comparisons mean changes of variables from Mann–Whitney U test (for fasting blood sugar (FBS)) and independent t test (for other variables)
  7. dBetween group comparisons mean changes of variables from ANCOVA (adjusted for age, duration of disease, changes of body mass index, dietary intake of energy, macronutrients, vitamins A, C, and E and physical activity)
  8. eWithin-group comparison of variables, resulted from paired t test (for all variables)