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Table 2 Exclusion criteria

From: Evaluation of the effects of pycnogenol (French maritime pine bark extract) supplementation on inflammatory biomarkers and nutritional and clinical status in traumatic brain injury patients in an intensive care unit: A randomized clinical trial protocol

Pregnancy and lactation

Morbid obesity: BMI a ≥ 40

Failure to start enteral nutrition in the first 24–48 h

Suffering from autoimmune disorders and HIV/AIDS

Suffering or having history of cancer and any liver failure

Receiving positive inotropic medications including dopamine, dobutamine, and epinephrine

Severe and active bleeding

Suffering from sepsis

Having a history of known food allergies

  1. a Body mass index