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Table 4 Grades of pulmonary complications

From: PROtective Ventilation with a low versus high Inspiratory Oxygen fraction (PROVIO) and its effects on postoperative pulmonary complications: protocol for a randomized controlled trial

Postoperative pulmonary complication grade
Grade 1Cough, dry
Microatelectasis: abnormal lung findings and temperature > 37.5 °C without other
documented cause; normal chest radiograph
Dyspnea, not due to other documented cause
Grade 2aCough, productive, not due to other documented cause
Bronchospasm: new wheezing or preexistent wheezing resulting in a change in therapy
Hypoxemia: SpO2 < 90 in room air
Atelectasis: gross radiological confirmation (concordance of 2 independent experts) plus either temperature > 37.5 °C or abnormal lung findings
Hypercarbia (PaCO2 > 50 mmHg), requiring treatment
Grade 3Pleural effusion, resulting in thoracentesis
Pneumonia: radiological evidence (concordance of 2 independent experts) plus clinical symptoms (two of the following: leukcocytosis or leukopenia, abnormal temperature, purulent secretions), plus either a pathological organism (by Gram stain or culture), or a required change in antibiotics
Noninvasive ventilation, strictly applied to those with all of the following: (a) SpO2 ≤ 92% under supplemental oxygen; (b) need of supplemental oxygen > 5 L/min; and (c) respiratory rate ≥ 30 bpm
Reintubation postoperative or intubation, period of ventilator dependence does not exceed 48 h
Grade 4Ventilatory failure: postoperative ventilator dependence exceeding 48 h, or reintubation with subsequent period of ventilator dependence exceeding 48 h
Grade 5Death
  1. aWe only classified as grade 2 if two or more items in grade 2 were present
  2. PaCO2 partial pressure of arterial carbon dioxide, SpO2 pulse oxygen saturation