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Table 4 Laboratory analysis

From: Repetitive vascular occlusion stimulus (RVOS) versus standard care to prevent muscle wasting in critically ill patients (ROSProx):a study protocol for a pilot randomised controlled trial

SampleBiomarkers
Plasma and serumMuscle anabolic marker insulin-like growth factor 1Muscle catabolic marker MyostatinInflammatory cytokines interleukin (IL)-6, IL-10, tumour necrosis factor α, granulocyte–macrophage colony-stimulating factor, macrophage inflammatory protein 1, transforming growth factor β1Angiogenic factors vascular endothelial growth factor, hypoxia inducible factor 1α
Tempus RNA tubeMicroRNAs linked with muscle atrophy such as miR-29b, miR-542-5p and miR-424-5p [108]
Peripheral blood mononuclear cellsDNA damage/repair enzymes GAD45a and APE-1
UrineOxidative stress-derived DNA damage marker 8-hydroxy deoxyguanosine