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Table 3 Study outcomes and measures

From: The effects of two early parenting interventions on child aggression and risk for violence in Brazil (The PIÁ Trial): protocol for a randomised controlled trial

Outcome Concept Measures Baseline
(months 1–3)
Post intervention
(months 4–6)
(months 9–13)
Child aggression (primary outcome) Child aggression Aggression sub-scale of the Child Behaviour Checklist  
Items on aggression from the ELDEQ Study Questionnaire  
Don’t touch’ and ‘Clean Up’ tasks
Observation: LabTab,
‘Don’t touch’ and ‘Clean Up’ tasks
Child language (main secondary outcome) Expressive language Teste de Vocabulário Expressivo  
Receptive language Teste de Vocabulário Receptivo  
Parenting (main secondary outcome) Harsh and abusive parenting PAFAS Questionnaire  
Juvenile Victimisation Questionnaire  
Don’t touch’ and ‘Clean Up’ tasks
Searches of child protection service records   
Parenting (secondary outcomes) Positive parenting PAFAS Questionnaire  
Videotaped sensitivity and reciprocity during book-sharing and free-play parent-child interactions  
Parental attitudes about corporal punishment Deater-Deckard study Questionnaire  
Stress (secondary outcomes) Parental stress Perceived Stress Scale  
Pelotas questions on parenting stress  
Parental and child chronic stress Cortisol from hair samples  
Child development (secondary outcomes) Child attention Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire  
Card Sort task from the Early Years Toolbox   
Child executive functions/self-control Go no Go task from the Early Years Toolbox  
Block Design task  
Child emotion recognition Denham’s puppet task  
Child empathy/theory of mind/altruism Em-Que Questionnaire  
Help task  
Dictator Game   
Triangle task  
Sally-Anne task