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Table 3 Chest radiograph features characteristic (‘typical or highly suggestive chest radiograph findings’ of TB in children aged < 5 years, by disease severity status)

From: Levofloxacin versus placebo for the prevention of tuberculosis disease in child contacts of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis: study protocol for a phase III cluster randomised controlled trial (TB-CHAMP)

Non-severe disease Severe disease
• Uncomplicated LN disease - hilar or mediastinal nodes, nodes with unilateral airway narrowing, nodes with single lobe bronchopneumonia, nodes with segmental opacification (< 1 lobe)
• Isolated Ghon focus
• Simple pleural effusion
• Complicated LN disease (airway compression with hyperinflation or collapse or bilateral airway compression)
• Expansile pneumonia (involving ≥ 1 lobe)
• Ghon focus with cavitation
• Miliary TB
• Complicated pleural effusion (alveolar disease with effusion, pneumothorax, loculated pyopneumothorax with air-fluid level), loculated pleural effusion
• Adult-type cavitary disease
• Bronchopneumonic consolidation with or without cavities or visible lymph nodes
• Suspected pericardial effusion (cardiac enlargement)
  1. LN lymph node, TB tuberculosis