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Table 2 Pain visual analogue scale scores at different stages

From: Evaluation of different doses of transcutaneous nerve stimulation for pain relief during labour: a randomized controlled trial

  Group
Stage TENS 1 TENS 2 TENS placebo
Baseline 7.0 ± 1.5 8.1 ± 1.2 6.6 ± 1.7
10 min 6.2 ± 1.4 6.2 ± 2.0 8.3 ± 1.2
30 min 6.3 ± 1.7 5.9 ± 1.9 8.8 ± 1.1
  Difference (95% CI) p*
Baseline
 TENS 1-TENS 2 −1.0 (− 2.2 to 0.1) 0.079
 TENS 1-Placebo 0.4 (− 0.7 to 1.6) 0.668
 TENS 2-Placebo 1.5 (0.3 to 2.7) 0.009
10 min
 TENS 1-TENS 2 −0.4 (− 1.3 to 1.2) 0.995
 TENS 1-Placebo −2.1 (− 3.3 to –  0.8) <  0.001
 TENS 2-Placebo − 2.1 (− 3.3 to –  0.8) <  0.001
30 min
 TENS 1-TENS 2 0.4 (− 0.7 to 1.7) 0.646
 TENS 1-Placebo − 2.4 (− 3.7 to − 1.5) <  0.001
 TENS 2-Placebo −2.9 (− 4.1 to − 1.6) < 0. 001
  1. Data are visual analogue scale mean ± standard deviation scores unless otherwise specified
  2. TENS transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation, CI confidence interval
  3. *p values obtained from one-way analysis of variance