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Table 1 Sedation–agitation scale (SAS)

From: Comparison of dexmedetomidine vs. remifentanil combined with sevoflurane during radiofrequency ablation of hepatocellular carcinoma: a randomized controlled trial

Score Term Patients’ behavior
7 Dangerous agitation Pulling at endotracheal tube, trying to remove catheters, climbing over bed rail, striking at staff, thrashing from side to side
6 Very agitated Does not calm down despite frequent verbal reminders, requires physical restraints, bites endotracheal tube
5 Agitated Anxious or mildly agitated, attempting to sit up, calms down with verbal instructions
4 Calm and cooperative Calm, awakens easily, follows commands
3 Sedated Difficult to arouse, awakens to verbal stimuli or gentle shaking but drifts off again, follows simple commands
2 Very sedated Arouses to physical stimuli but does not communicate or follow commands, may move spontaneously
1 Unarousable Minimal or no response to noxious stimuli, does not communicate or follow commands