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Table 1 Baseline and follow-up outcome measures

From: Effects of transcranial direct current stimulation on gait in people with Parkinson’s disease: study protocol for a randomized, controlled clinical trial

Outcome measure Instrument To be completed at convenient time Visit 1 Visits 2–4
Screening Clinical
Clinical/screening measures
 Cognitive function Addenbrooke’s Cognitive Examination (ACE-R)     
 Disease severity Unified Parkinson’s Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS) and Hoehn and Yahr scale     
 Visual function
  Visual acuity Binocular visual acuity: Bailey-Lovie     
  Contrast sensitivity Pelli-Robson contrast sensitivity chart     
  Melbourne Edge Test     
 Touch sensitivity Semmes-Weinstein monofilament test     
 Clinical balance and gait Tinetti Gait and Balance Instrument    
 Mobility Timed Up and Go (TUG) test    
 Gait characteristics
  Spatiotemporal parameters Nexus 2.6; Vicon, Oxford, UK     
   Gait speed (m/s)     
   Cadence (step/min)     
  Spatial parameters (cm) Nexus 2.6; Vicon, Oxford, UK     
   Stride length     
   Step length     
   Step width     
   Maximum toe clearance     
  Temporal parameters (s and % GC) Nexus 2.6; Vicon, Oxford, UK     
   Stride/stance/swing/single support/double support/GC time     
  Segmental linear motion (cm) Nexus 2.6; Vicon, Oxford, UK     
   Centre of mass (COM) VT/ML     
   Head displacement, VT/ML     
   Pelvis displacement, VT/ML     
   Arm swing excursion     
  Joint kinematics (deg) Nexus 2.6; Vicon, Oxford, UK     
   Trunk flexion angle     
   Hip flexion/extension range     
   Knee flexion/extension range     
   Ankle dorsiflexion/plantar flexion range     
   Joint angles (hip, knee, ankle) of stance and swing leg at maximum toe clearance     
  Muscles activity (per muscle) ZeroWire, Aurion Srl, Milan, Italy     
   EMG onset and offset time     
   Duration of muscle activity     
   Total burst activation (integral of rectified EMG)     
   Time of peak muscle activation     
Questionnaires
  Balance confidence Activities-specific Balance Confidence (ABC) Scale    
  Freezing of gait (FOG) and falls PD gait and falls questionnaire (FOG section)    
  Physical activity International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ)    
 Quality of life The 39-item Parkinson’s Disease Questionnaire (PDQ-39)    
  1. AP anteroposterior, EMG electromyography, GC gait cycle, ML mediolateral, VT vertical