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Table 1 Examples of hard outcomes (context) in trials reported in speciality journals

From: Outcomes, Interventions and Funding in Randomised Research Published in High-Impact Journals


Headache days (migraine)

Incident clinical disease (multiple sclerosis)

Living circumstances (stroke)

Survival (amyotrophic lateral sclerosis)


Survival (various cancers)

Incident disease (breast cancer)


Myocardial infarction (various interventions)

Stroke (various interventions)

Mortality (various interventions)

Incident disease (atrial fibrillation)

Respiratory medicine

Incident clinical disease (asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, pneumonia)

Abstinence (cigarette smoking)

Infectious Diseases

Clinical resolution of infection (pneumonia, urogenital infections)

Incident clinical disease (soft tissue infections, malaria)

Clinical adverse events (vaccinations)