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Table 3 Results for pre- and post-intervention DASS-21 and IES-R by group

From: Psychological distress following a motor vehicle crash: preliminary results of a randomised controlled trial investigating brief psychological interventions

  Control HL CBT
Mean (SD) 95% CI Mean (SD) 95% CI Mean (SD) 95% CI
DASS-21 baseline
 Depression 13.0(13.5) 7.9–18.0 15.9(13.5) 10.8–20.9 10.8(11.3) 6.6–15.0
 Anxiety 11.6(12.6) 6.9–16.3 14.0(13.0) 9.1–18.9 9.7(10.4) 5.8–13.6
 Stress 17.5(14.4) 12.2–22.9 18.9(13.6) 13.9–24.0 14.2(12.0) 9.7–18.7
 Total 42.1(39.0) 27.6–56.7 48.8(37.7) 34.7–62.9 34.7(30.3) 23.3–46.0
DASS-21 3 months
 Depression 9.7(11.6) 5.3–14.0 15.8(14.1) 10.5–21.1 9.0(10.8) 5.0–13.0
 Anxiety 8.7(9.8) 5.1–12.4 14.1(14.5) 8.7–19.5 7.5(8.5) 4.3–10.6
 Stress 14.0(12.9) 9.2–18.8 16.7(13.2) 11.8–21.7 11.8(10.9) 7.7–15.9
 Total 32.4(31.9) 20.5–44.3 46.7(39.9) 31.8–61.6 34.7(30.3) 23.3–46.0
IES-R baseline
 Intrusion 14.8(8.9) 11.5–18.2 18.4(9.3) 15.0–21.9* 12.1(9.4) 8.6–15.6*
 Avoidance 11.8(8.8) 8.5–15.1 15.4(9.1) 11.9–18.7 9.9(7.6) 7.1–12.8
 Hyperarousal 11.3(6.6) 8.9–13.8 13.3(7.5) 10.5–16.1 9.2(6.8) 6.6–11.7
 Total 37.9(22.9) 29.4–46.5 47.1(23.9) 38.1–56.0* 31.2(22.1) 23.0–39.5*
IES-R 3 months
 Intrusion 12.7(9.1) 9.3–16.1 16.0(10.8) 11.9–20.0* 9.8(7.5) 7.0–12.6*
 Avoidance 10.7(8.4) 7.5–13.8 13.7(9.7) 10.0–17.3* 8.0(7.4) 5.3–10.8*
 Hyperarousal 9.4(7.8) 6.4–12.3 11.9(8.1) 8.9–15.0 7.3(6.0) 5.3–9.5
 Total 32.7(24.0) 23.8–41.7 41.6(27.5) 31.3–51.8* 25.1(19.4) 17.8–32.4*
  1. These are unadjusted descriptive scores only
  2. CBT cognitive behaviour therapy, DASS-21 Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale 21, HL healthy lifestyle, IES-R Impact of Events Scales (Revised), SD standard deviation
  3. *P < .05