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Table 2 Behavioural support and self-management strategies [87] employed to support the lifestyle intervention in DIADEM-I

From: Diabetes Intervention Accentuating Diet and Enhancing Metabolism (DIADEM-I): a randomised controlled trial to examine the impact of an intensive lifestyle intervention consisting of a low-energy diet and physical activity on body weight and metabolism in early type 2 diabetes mellitus: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

Behavioural support and self-management strategies Examples of behavioural techniques
Self monitoring • Identifying the relationship between mood and food selection and intake this will be accomplished using a food and mood diary
• Using scales to gauge hunger and satiety
• Regular weight measurement
• Recording of food selection and intake
Goal setting • SMART (Specific, Measureable, Achievable, Relevant and Time-Bound) goals will be used throughout
• Individualised goals will be set by participants regarding diet and physical activity
Stimulus control • Identification of external and internal triggers to unhealthy eating habits
• Use of distraction techniques to help subjects avoid emotional eating
Cognitive restructuring • Reviewing the impact of negative thoughts and beliefs and their impact on behaviour change.
• Replacing negative thoughts and beliefs with positive thoughts and beliefs
Eating behaviour • Education about healthy eating behaviours
• Choosing low energy alternatives to high energy foods
• Portion control
• Timing and duration of eating
• Dealing with snacking
Planning • Planning meals and physical activity
• Planning for challenging situations e.g. eating with family, eating at restaurants, and eating and activity while traveling
Maintenance • Maintaining successful behaviours
• Dealing with lapses and avoiding relapse
• Avoiding previous behaviours that resulted in weight regain
Reward & support • Non-food related rewards
• Support from family and friends
Problem solving • Problem solving skills
• Dealing with high risk situations that impact on eating