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Table 1 Clavien Dindo classification of surgical complications [19]

From: Parenteral nutrition during neoadjuvant chemotherapy for patients with non-metastatic gastric or esophago-gastric cancer to reduce postoperative morbidity (PERCOG): study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

Grade Definition
Grade I Any deviation from the normal postoperative course without the need for pharmacological treatment or surgical, endoscopic, and radiological interventions
Grade II Allowed therapeutic regimens are: drugs as antiemetics, antipyretics, analgesics, diuretics, electrolytes, and physiotherapy. This grade also includes wound infections opened at the bedside
Grade III Requiring pharmacological treatment with drugs other than such allowed for grade I complications Blood transfusions and total parenteral nutrition are also included. Requiring surgical, endoscopic, or radiological intervention
Grade IIIa Intervention not under general anesthesia
Grade IIIb Intervention under general anesthesia
Grade IV Life-threatening complication (including CNS complications) requiring IC/ICU management
Grade IVa Single organ dysfunction (including dialysis)
Grade IVb Multiorgan dysfunction
Grade V Death of a patient
Suffix “d” If the patient suffers from a complication at the time of discharge, the suffix “d” (for “disability”) is added to the respective grade of complication. This label indicates the need for a follow-up to fully evaluate the complication
  1. CNS central nervous system, IC intermediate care, ICU intensive care unit