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Table 2 Summary of outcome measures and participant characteristics. Collected weeks 0–1 (baseline) and 12–13 (post-intervention/wait-list controls)

From: Exercise intervention for unilateral amputees with low back pain: study protocol for a randomised, controlled trial

Primary outcome measures Data collection instrument or method
Back pain severity 11-point Numerical Pain Rating Scale (NRSpain)
Resting and during activity
Pain impact on quality of life (QOL) Pain medications used
Medical Outcomes Short Form-36 (SF-36)
Oswestry Disability Index (ODI)
Roland Morris Disability Questionnaire (RMDQ)
Gait kinematics and kinetics 3D motion analysis for temporal spatial parameters of gait and trunk away, bilateral (at self-selected velocity, standard velocity)
Ground reaction forces
Muscle strength 1-repetition maximum (1-RM) on MedX® clinical Machines: abdominal curl, hip adduction, hip abduction, leg press, and lumbar extension
Muscle morphology Bilateral B-mode ultrasound measures of muscle thickness and cross-sectional area: multifidus, paraspinals, transversus abdominis, and internal oblique
Step count StepWatch® monitor, 7-day average count
Participant characteristics Demographics, weight, Body Mass Index, current medical issues, current medications
Back pain history
Pain catastrophizing level (Pain Catastrophizing Scale (PCS))
Kinesiophobia (11-item Tampa Scale of Kinesiophobia (TSK-11))