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Table 1 Pain education intervention

From: A multicomponent intervention for the management of chronic pain in older adults: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

Session Content
Session 1 Situation of chronic pain among Hong Kong older adults
Difference between chronic pain and acute pain
Types of chronic pain
Session 2 Review of previous session
Impact of chronic pain on older adults
Interaction between chronic pain, bodily function, and psychological condition
Impact of chronic pain on social relationships with others
Understanding the vicious cycle related to chronic pain
Session 3 Review of previous session
Causes of chronic pain
Different types of chronic pain
Session 4 Review of previous session
Addressing misunderstandings about chronic pain
Drug and nondrug therapies
Session 5 Review of previous session
Introducing the pain ladder recommended by the World Health Organization
How to take medicine appropriately
Addressing the concerns of taking medicine
Side effects of drugs and things to notice (part A)
Session 6 Review of previous session
Side effects of drugs and things to notice (part B)
Physiotherapy
Stimulation (electrotherapy, acupuncture)
Surgery
Aromatherapy
Session 7 Review of previous session
Psychological strategies to deal with chronic pain
Hydrotherapy
Music therapy
Session 8 Review of previous session
Different types of medical imaging in managing chronic pain
How to cooperate with doctors in dealing with pain
Session 9 Review of previous session
Adjustment of walking speed
Introducing correct bodily postures
Introducing safety guidelines for physical exercises
How to exercise correctly
Session 10 Review of previous session
Sleep problems related to chronic pain
Impact of insomnia
Managing sleep problems
Healthy sleeping habits
Social resources