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Table 3 Bivariate associations between patient characteristics and willingness to participate

From: Willingness to participate in pragmatic dialysis trials: the importance of physician decisional autonomy and consent approach

Characteristic Willing to participatea, number (percentage) OR (95% CI) P value
Sex
 Male 651 (76) 1.00 0.17
 Female 601 (81) 1.61 (0.81, 3.22)
Age (years)
 <40 128 (67) 1.00 0.007
 40–49 142 (71) 1.60 (0.47, 5.42)
 50–59 273 (78) 2.45 (0.83, 7.23)
 60–69 423 (83) 5.06 (1.72, 14.86)
 Over 70 286 (83) 6.48 (1.89, 22.24)
Race
 Not black 475 (77) 1.00 0.96
 Black 777 (79) 1.02 (0.50, 2.10)
Education
 ≤ High school 600 (78) 1.00 0.71
 Some college 363 (81) 1.31 (0.58, 2.96)
 College or Graduate degree 289 (75) 0.89 (0.37, 2.12)
Income
 <US$20,000 387 (82) 1.00 0.68
 US$20,000–US$39,999 333 (79) 0.65 (0.27, 1.58)
 US$40,000)–US$59,999 218 (76) 0.60 (0.21, 1.72)
 Over US$60,000 294 (77) 0.61 (0.24, 1.57)
Years on dialysis
 Less than 1 year 222 (79) 1.00 0.80
 1–3 years 370 (78) 0.94 (0.33, 2.68)
 3–5 years 310 (81) 1.00 (0.36, 2.79)
 More than 5 years 350 (75) 0.66 (0.23, 1.89)
Hospitalizations in past year
 None 397 (80) 1.00 0.80
 1 222 (79) 1.03 (0.35, 2.97)
 2 243 (76) 0.69 (0.26, 1.83)
 3 390 (77) 0.73 (0.31, 1.72)
Hypertension
 No 188 (92) 1.00 0.01
 Yes 1050 (77) 0.17 (0.05, 0.68)
Heart disease
 No 636 (77) 1.00 0.66
 Yes 532 (79) 1.17 (0.58, 2.39)
Diabetes
 No 649 (79) 1.00 0.68
 Yes 519 (77) 0.86 (0.42, 1.75)
COPD
 No 1034 (79) 1.00 0.41
 Yes 134 (73) 0.61 (0.19, 1.94)
Malignancy
 No 1064 (79) 1.00 0.54
 Yes 104 (72) 0.66 (0.18, 2.46)
Research Attitude Questionnaireb (per 1-point change in score) n/a 1.09 (1.02, 1.17) 0.01
Revised Healthcare System Distrust Scalec (per 1-point change in score) n/a 0.87 (0.83, 0.92) <0.001
  1. COPD chronic obstructive pulmonary disease
  2. aWillingness to participate was defined as the “definitely willing” or “probably willing” categories combined
  3. bHigher scores indicate a more favorable view of biomedical research
  4. cHigher scores indicate more distrust of the health care system