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Table 2 Details of the balance exercises and exercise progression

From: High-speed resistance training and balance training for people with knee osteoarthritis to reduce falls risk: study protocol for a pilot randomized controlled trial

Exercise Description Sets/Reps/Time Progression
1. Single leg balance – firm surface 10 s Participant stands on one leg to balance with hands on hips
Leg in air must not contact stance leg, floor or any other object to aid in balance
2 × 10 s 1. Increase time by 5 s increments (after performed same time 2 consecutive times)
2. Reach up to 30 s
3. Foam surface starting 10 s
4. Increase 5 s with progression
5. Repeat steps 1–4 commencing with eyes closed
2. Walking forward – tandem on firm surface (in between parallel bars) Participant stands in between parallel bars
Place one foot directly in front of the other (heel to toe) so they form a straight line
4 × lengths of parallel bars 1. Walking forward tandem on firm surface
2. Toe walking on firm surface turn on toes at end
3. Repeat steps 1–3 on foam
4. Repeat steps 1–3 eyes closed
3. Walking backwards – tandem on firm surface (in between parallel bars) Participant stands in between parallel bars
Place one foot directly behind the other (toe to heel) so they form a straight line
4 × lengths of parallel bars 1. Walking backward tandem on firm surface
2. Toe walking on firm surface
3. Repeat steps 1–3 on foam
4. Repeat steps 1–3 eyes closed
4. Side step walking (in between parallel bars) Stand up tall and place hands on hips
Take 10 side steps to the right
Take 10 side steps to the left
4 × lengths of parallel bars 1. Side step walking firm surface
2. Side step walking with 1 obstacle in the middle
3. Side step walking with 2 obstacles
4. Continue to progress like this until every step is over an obstacle
5. Side steps with grapevine
6. Repeat steps 1–5 on foam
7. Repeat steps 1–5 with eyes closed
5. Single leg tap – clockwork (forward, lateral, behind) on firm surface Standing on one leg
Reach out to do clockwork starting with forward, lateral and backward tap
Bring foot back down to standing Repeat starting from backward, lateral and forward tap.
2 × 5 forward, lateral, backward tap 2× backward, lateral, forward tap 1. 2 × 5 taps bringing foot back to midline in between each tap out
2. 2 × 5 taps not bringing foot back to midline
3. 2 × 5 and include tap on opposite side (cross shape)
4. Repeat steps 1–3 with stance foot on foam
5. Repeat steps 1–3 with eyes closed
  1. Single leg exercises to be performed on each leg