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Table 1 Inclusion/exclusion criteria

From: Different strategies for mechanical VENTilation during CardioPulmonary Bypass (CPBVENT 2014): study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

Eligibility criteria
Inclusion criteria
• Age ≥18 years
• Ability to provide informed consent
• Elective cardiac surgery
• Surgical intervention performed with CPB, aortic cross-clamping and cardioplegic arrest
• Valvular surgery, coronary surgery, surgery on the ascending aorta, combined cardiac surgery
• Median sternotomy and bi-pulmonary ventilation
Exclusion criteria
• Patient’s refusal
• Nonelective cardiac surgery
• Previous cardiac surgery
• Anticipated circulatory arrest, aortic endoprothesis, TAVI, Mitraclip
• Thoracotomic approach, with one lung ventilation
• Patients with BMI >30 [24]
• Patients with end-stage chronic kidney disease (defined as need for dialysis)
• Patients with known respiratory diseases (ongoing respiratory infections, asthma, COPD, OSAS)
• Patients already intubated before arrival in operating theatre
• Pneumonia in the previous 30 days
• Previous pulmonary resection
• Patients with a preoperative oxygen saturation <90%, or PaO2 < 60 mmHg without supplemental oxygen, or a PaO2/FiO2 ratio <300, or PaCO2 > 45 mmHg
• Patients with hepatic disease, defined as elevated liver enzymes (higher than two reference intervals)
• Patients with pulmonary hypertension (defined as preoperative estimated systolic pulmonary artery pressure >45 mmHg)
  1. BMI Body Mass Index, CPB cardiopulmonary bypass, COPD chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, FEV 1 forced expiratory volume in 1 s, FiO 2 fraction of inspired oxygen, HF high-frequency, OSAS obstructive sleep apnea syndrome, PaCO 2 arterial partial carbon dioxide pressure, PaO 2 arterial partial oxygen pressure, TAVI transcatheter aortic valve implantation