Skip to main content


Table 1 Outcome measures and potential predictors of response

From: Chronic pain self-management support with pain science education and exercise (COMMENCE): study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

Construct Outcome measure Scale range Minimal important difference
Function Short Musculoskeletal Function Assessment - Dysfunction Index (SMFA-DI) 34–170 10 pointsa
How much participants are bothered by difficulty with functional activities Short Musculoskeletal Function Assessment - Bother Index (SMFA-BI) 12–60 5.5 pointsa
Pain intensity Numeric Pain Rating Scale (NPRS) 0–10 2 points [86]
Fatigue Numeric Fatigue Rating Scale (NFRS) 0–10 1.4 points [87]
Pain interference PROMIS Pain Interference Item Bank - 8 items 8–40 5 pointsa
Depressive symptoms Patient Health Questionnaire - 9 (PHQ-9) 0–27 5 points [88]
Catastrophic thinking Pain Catastrophizing Scale (PCS) 0–52 38 % of scale [89]
Fear of symptom exacerbation 11-item Tampa Scale of Kinesiophobia (TSK-11) 11–44 5.6 points [90]
Pain neurophysiology knowledge Neurophysiology of pain test (NPT) 0–13 1.1 pointsa
Self efficacy Pain Self Efficacy Questionnaire (PSEQ) 0–60 11 points [91]
Work status Working versus not-working   
  Working full hours versus modified hours   
  Working full duties versus previous duties   
Healthcare utilization # of health care visits during 12 weeks prior to treatment versus health care visits during 12-week follow-up period   
Post-traumatic stress symptoms Post-traumatic Stress Disorder Checklist 17–85  
Sense of perceived injustice Injustice Experience Questionnaire (IEQ) 0–48  
Medication use Number of medications   
  Medication by class   
Comorbidities Disease count   
Cold sensitivity A novel test of cold sensitivity   
Pressure sensitivity Pressure Pain Threshold (PPT)   
  1. Legend: This table depicts each construct being measured as either an outcome or potential predictor of response, the measure used to evaluate that construct, the range of the scale (if applicable), and the minimal important difference for scales that will be measured as outcomes
  2. aIn the absence of an established MCID or MDC, change greater than half a standard deviation will be considered clinically meaningful [92]. In these instances, clinical data from Woodstock and Area Community Health Centre was used to establish the standard deviation