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Table 4 Baseline characteristics of the CardioBBEAT study participants

From: First outline and baseline data of a randomized, controlled multicenter trial to evaluate the health economic impact of home telemonitoring in chronic heart failure – CardioBBEAT

Characteristic All patients n = 621 Usual care n = 319 (51 %) Monitoring n = 302 (49 %) p value
Demographic profile     
  Age (years)     
   mean ± SD 63.0 ± 11.5 63.5 ± 11.4 62.5 ± 11.6 0.303
   median (IQR) 65 (55–72) 65 (55–73) 64 (54–72)  
  Male sex, n (%) 544 (88) 280 (88) 264 (87) 0.990
  Living alone, n (%) 159 (26) 77 (24) 82 (27) 0.442
  Education (years) – number of patients (% valid) 607 (98) 311 (98) 296 (98)  
   mean ± SD 12 ± 3 12 ± 3 12 ± 3 0.803
   median (IQR) 11 (10–13) 11 (10–13) 12 (10–13)  
  Causes of heart failure, n (%)     0.797
   Ischemic CM 363 (59) 185 (58) 178 (59)  
   Non-ischemic CM 258 (42) 134 (42) 124 (41)  
  NYHA class, n (%)     0.086
   II 430 (69) 209 (66) 221 (73)  
   III 186 (30) 108 (34) 78 (26)  
   IV 5 (1) 2 (1) 3 (1)  
  NYHA class III–IV, n (%) 191 (31) 110 (35) 81 (27) 0.048
  Peripheral edema, n (%) 131 (21) 83 (26) 48 (16) 0.003
Comorbidities, n (%)     
  Stroke/TIA 41 (7) 21 (7) 20 (7) 1.000
  PAD 56 (9) 24 (8) 32 (11) 0.232
  COPD 87 (14) 48 (15) 39 (13) 0.516
  Sleep apnea 45 (7) 25 (8) 20 (7) 0.668
  Renal dysfunction (GFR ≤ 60 ml/min) 148 (24) 87 (27) 61 (20) 0.048
  Depression 51 (8) 24 (8) 27 (9) 0.619
  Resuscitation 81 (13) 37 (12) 44 (15) 0.327
Risk factor profile     
  BMI (kg/m2) – number of patients (% valid) 619 (100) 318 (100) 301 (100)  
   mean ± SD 28 ± 5 28 ± 5 28 ± 5 0.529
   median (IQR) 28 (25–31) 28 (25–32) 27 (25–31)  
  History of smoking – number/total number (%) 435/620 (70) 221/319 (69) 214/301 (71) 0.684
  Diabetes mellitus, n (%) 219 (35) 103 (32) 116 (38) 0.131
  Hypertension, n (%) 533 (86) 269 (84) 264 (87) 0.323
  1. BMI body mass index, CM cardiomyopathy, COPD chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, GFR glomerular filtration rate, IQR interquartile range, NYHA New York Heart Association, classification of heart failure, PAD peripheral arterial disease, TIA transient ischemic attack