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Table 1 Overall quality of reporting rating using items from the Consolidated Standards for Reporting Trials (CONSORT) statement (n = 246)

From: Quality of randomized controlled trials reporting in the treatment of melasma conducted in China

Item Criteria Description Number of positive trials % Cohen’sкcoefficient 95% CI
1 ‘Randomized’ in the title or abstract Study identified as a randomized controlled in the title or abstract 226 92 1 1
2 Background Adequate description of the scientific background and explanation of rationale 70 29 0.72 0.63 to 0.79
3 Trial design Description of trial design (such as parallel, factorial) including allocation ratio 5 2 0.69 0.56 to 0.75
4 Participants Description of the eligibility criteria for participants 194 79 0.93 0.85 to 0.99
5 Interventions Details of the interventions intended for each group 244 99 0.75 0.66 to 0.88
6 Outcomes Definition of primary (and secondary when appropriate) outcome measures 201 82 0.83 0.74 to 0.98
7 Sample size Description of sample size calculation 0 0 0.76 0.68 to 0.97
12 Statistical methods Description of the statistical methods used to compare groups for primary outcomes, subgroup analyses, or adjusted analyses 241 98 0.81 0.72 to 0.93
13 Flow chart Details on the flow of participants through each stage of the trials (number of patients randomly assigned, receiving intended treatment, completing the protocol and analyzed) 242 98 0.95 0.92 to 0.98
14 Recruitment Dates defining the periods of recruitment and follow-up 31 13 0.69 0.60 to 0.78
17 Outcomes and estimation For each primary and secondary outcome, a summary of results for each group is given, and the estimated effect size and its precision (for example, 95% CI) 244 99 0.82 0.70 to 0.96
18 Ancillary analyses Clear statement of whether subgroup/adjusted analyses were prespecified or exploratory 19 8 0.73 0.65 to 0.83
19 Harms Description of all important adverse events in each group 113 46 0.78 0.73 to 0.86