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Table 3 Different specific procedures of Feng’s Spinal Manipulative Therapy (FSM) performance in three groups

From: Short-term study on risk-benefit outcomes of two spinal manipulative therapies in the treatment of acute radiculopathy caused by lumbar disc herniation: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

Three types of FSM Different specific procedures
SSM (placebo) No further torsion stress loaded on the involved joint after trunk rotation is ended at the limit of ROM, although the doctor’s thumb is gently located on the lower part of the lumbar spine.
SMO (mobilization) After trunk rotation reaches the end of the ROM of the lumbar spine, more torsion stress is gently and slowly loaded on the patient’s shoulder and the involved joint during the rotation within 3 seconds with the feature of LVVA with the help of the doctor’s thumb steadily and firmly pressed against the spinous process of the involved segment accompanied by no cracking sound most of the time.
SMA (manipulation) After trunk rotation reaches the end of the ROM of the lumbar spine, more torsion stress is forcefully and quickly loaded on the patient shoulder and the involved joint within 0.5 seconds with the feature of HVLA with the help of the doctor’s thumb swiftly and firmly pressed against the spinous process of the involved segment accompanied by cracking sound some of the time.
  1. FSM, Feng’s Spinal Manipulative Therapy; HVLA, high velocity and low amplitude; LVVA, low velocity and variable amplitude; ROM, range of motion; SMA, spinal manipulation; SMO, spinal mobilization; SSM, sham spinal manipulation.