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Table 1 Interactions between baseline risk, treatment-related harm (Rx-harm) and competing risk (CR) when chemotherapy reduces breast cancer mortality by 15%.

From: Competing risk and heterogeneity of treatment effect in clinical trials

Risk of Breast CA Death No Rx-harm or CR Rx-harm (1.5% absolute rate) but no CR Rx-harm & CR is:
    Low (10%) Moderate (25%) High (50%)
(10-yr CA Mortality) Absolute Risk Reduction/Number Needed to Treat
Low (10%) .015/67 0/8 -.002/-667§ -.004/-267§ -.007/-133§
Moderate (25%) .038/27 .023/44 .019/53 .013/76 .004/267
High (50%) .075/13 .060/17 .053/19 .041/24 .022/44
  1. § The negative sign denotes instances in which chemotherapy does net harm, meaning that the statistics represent absolute risk increase and number need to harm.