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Table 1 Inclusion criteria

From: Comparison of complementary and alternative medicine with conventional mind–body therapies for chronic back pain: protocol for the Mind–body Approaches to Pain (MAP) randomized controlled trial

Inclusion criteria Rationales Sources
Primary sources   A, TI
   All GHC members with at least one primary care visit for back pain within the previous 3 to 15 months Initial targeting of members with back pain visits in recent past is an efficient method of identifying persons with chronic back pain.
   Random sample of GHC members without visits for back pain within the previous 3 to 15 months Emphasis placed on recruitment of GHC members to obtain complete treatment utilization and cost data from GHC medical records
   GHC members responding to an ad in the GHC magazine
Secondary sources   A, TI
   Random samples of nonmembers of GHC living in Washington state Nonmembers of GHC included to ensure that recruitment goals are met.
   Age range 20 to 70 years Chronic back pain in children is a result of causes different from those we will study.
Adults have a higher risk of undiagnosed serious conditions that cause back pain.
Nonspecific, uncomplicated back pain as defined by ICD-9 codes (for primary source only: GHC members with primary care visits for back pain in the previous 3 to 15 months) These codes are consistent with low back pain that is nonspecific and uncomplicated. A
   724.2 Lumbago   
   724.5 Backache, unspecified   
   724.8 Other symptoms referable to back   
   846.0-9 Sprains and strains, sacroiliac   
   847.2 Sprains and strains, lumbar   
   847.3 Sprains and strains, sacral   
   847.9 Sprains and strains, unspecified site of the back   
  1. GHC, Group Health Cooperative; ICD-9, International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision. A, Automated data gathered from visits; TI, Telephone interview.