Table 2 Mean baseline and follow-up values for analysis of determinants of behavior change

Determinant of behavioral change (HAPA) Domain and instrument Questions (scale) Baseline Follow-up
N = 17 N = 16
Risk perception 1. Causal beliefs: (Revised Illness Perception Questionnaire)[14] Indicate the extent to which you believe that a given cause could be a cause of diabetes (1 = definitely not; 5 = definitely)
- Heredity 4.3 ±0.7 4.4 ±0.9
- Aging 4.2 ±0.8 4.1 ±1.0
- Lifestyle (smoking, alcohol use, lack of physical activity and nutrition habits)a,b 4.0 ±0.6 4.0 ±1.0
- Stress or worry 3.3 ±1.3 3.2 ±1.4
- Country of origin 3.2 ±1.6 4.1 ±1.0e
2. Comparative risk: adopted from Claassen et al.[13] What is the chance of you getting diabetes compared with an average man/woman your age? (1 = a lot lower; 7 = a lot higher) 5.4 ±1.0 4.7 ±1.3
3. Risk estimation[13] How big is the chance of you getting diabetes within the next 5 years? ( 1 = very small; 7 = very big ) 4.7 ±1.5 4.7 ±1.3
Outcome expectancies For healthy diet and increasing physical activity: adopted from Schwarzer et al.[15] 1. Diet: If I eat healthy foods: I feel healthy/I will lose weight/I will look better/I feel relaxed (1 = totally disagree; 5 = totally agree) (sum score 4 to 20) a,b 16.0 ±2.5 15.9 ±1.7
2. Physical activity: If I exercise more: I feel healthy/I will lose weight/I will look better (1 = totally disagree; 5 = totally agree) (sum score 3 to 15) a,c 12.2 ±1.4 12.5 ±1.4
Self-efficacy For healthy diet and physical activity: adopted from Schwarzer et al.[16] 1. Diet: I am confident that I can eat healthy food - even if I: need a long time to develop the necessary routines/try several times until it works/have to rethink my entire way of nutrition/do not receive a great deal of support from others when making my first attempts/have to make a detailed plan (1 = very unconfident; 4 = very confident) (sum score 4 to 20) b 13.8 ±3.2 13.8 ±3.1
2. Physical activity: I can manage to carry out my exercise intentions even when I: have worries and problems/feel depressed/feel tense/am tired/am busy. (1 = very unconfident; 4 = very confident) (sum score 4 to 20) b 12.0 ±3.3 12.6 ±4.0
Intentions For healthy diet, physical activity losing weight[15] In the next three months I’m going to: (1 = totally disagree; 5 = totally agree)
1. eat healthy 3.7 ±0.9 3.6 ±1.0
2. exercise more 3.7 ±0.9 3.8 ±0.9
3. lose weight 3.9 ±0.7 3.7 ±1.0
Planning For healthy diet and physical activity[15] 1. Diet: I have concrete plans… what/how to change nutrition habits/what to do in difficult situations in order to stick to my intentions.
(1 = totally disagree to 4 = tot ally agree) (sum score 3 to 12) a,b
2. Physical activity: I have concrete plans when/where/how/how many times/with whom I’m going to exercise/what to do in difficult situations in order
to stick to my intentions (1 = totally disagree; 4 = totally agree) (sum score 6 to 24) d